Broccoli is a green vegetable that vaguely resembles a miniature tree. It belongs to the plant species known as Brassica oleracea.
It’s closely related to cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale and cauliflower — all edible plants collectively referred to as cruciferous vegetables.
There are three main varieties of broccoli:
- Calabrese broccoli
- Sprouting broccoli
- Purple cauliflower — despite its name a type of broccoli
Broccoli is a nutritional powerhouse full of vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants.
Here are the top 14 health benefits of broccoli.
One of broccoli’s biggest advantages is its nutrient content. It’s loaded with a wide array of vitamins, minerals, fiber and other bioactive compounds.
One cup (91 grams) of raw broccoli packs (1):
- Carbs: 6 grams
- Protein: 2.6 gram
- Fat: 0.3 grams
- Fiber: 2.4 grams
- Vitamin C: 135% of the RDI
- Vitamin A: 11% of the RDI
- Vitamin K: 116% of the RDI
- Vitamin B9 (Folate): 14% of the RDI
- Potassium: 8% of the RDI
- Phosphorus: 6% of the RDI
- Selenium: 3% of the RDI
Broccoli can be eaten cooked or raw — both are perfectly healthy but provide different nutrient profiles.
Different cooking methods, such as boiling, microwaving, stir-frying and steaming, alter the vegetable’s nutrient composition, particularly reducing vitamin C, as well as soluble protein and sugar. Steaming appears to have the fewest negative effects ().
Still, raw or cooked, broccoli is an excellent source of vitamin C. Just half a cup (78 grams) of cooked broccoli provides 84% of the reference daily intake (RDI) — more than one-half orange can offer (3, 4).
Summary Broccoli is a rich source of multiple vitamins, minerals and fiber. Different cooking methods may affect the vegetable’s nutrient composition, but broccoli is a healthy addition to your diet whether cooked or raw.
The antioxidant content of broccoli may be one of its main boons for human health ().
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit or neutralize cell damage caused by free radicals. This can lead to reduced inflammation and an overall health-protective effect.
Broccoli has high levels of glucoraphanin, a compound that is converted into a potent antioxidant called sulforaphane during digestion (6).
Test-tube and animal studies indicate that sulforaphane may offer multiple health benefits, including reduced blood sugar, cholesterol levels, oxidative stress and chronic disease development. However, more research is needed to understand its role in humans ().
Broccoli also contains measurable amounts of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin, which may prevent oxidative stress and cellular damage in your eyes ().
Summary Broccoli contains multiple potent antioxidants that may support healthy cells and tissues throughout your body.
Broccoli contains various bioactive compounds that have been shown to reduce inflammation in your body’s tissues.
It’s theorized that multiple compounds work synergistically to support this effect, though some seem to work individually as well ().
Kaempferol, a flavonoid in broccoli, demonstrates strong anti-inflammatory capacity in both animal and test-tube studies (, ).
A small human study in tobacco smokers also revealed that eating broccoli led to a significant reduction in markers of inflammation ().
While these results are promising, more research is needed to better understand how broccoli consumption affects inflammation in humans.
Summary Broccoli contains several bioactive compounds that demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect in animal and test-tube studies. However, more human research is needed.
Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, contain various bioactive compounds that may reduce cell damage caused by certain chronic diseases ().
Multiple small studies have shown that eating cruciferous vegetables may protect against certain types of cancer, namely:
- Breast ()
- Prostate ()
- Gastric/stomach ()
- Colorectal ()
- Renal/kidney ()
- Bladder ()
Though this data is encouraging, it isn’t strong enough to make definitive health claims regarding broccoli’s role in cancer treatment or prevention.
Ultimately, more human research is needed to determine the relationship between cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention.
Summary Multiple studies have shown that cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, may have a cancer-preventative effect, though more research is needed.
Eating broccoli may support better blood sugar control in people with diabetes. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it may be related to broccoli’s antioxidant content ().
One human study showed significantly decreased insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes who consumed broccoli sprouts daily for one month ().
Interestingly, an animal study revealed decreased blood sugar in addition to reduced pancreatic cell damage in diabetic rats fed broccoli extract ().
Broccoli is also a good source of fiber. Some research indicates that higher intake of dietary fiber is associated with lower blood sugar and improved diabetic control (, ).
Summary Eating broccoli may lower blood sugar and improve diabetic control. This is likely related to its antioxidant and fiber content.
Several studies indicate that broccoli may support heart health in a variety of ways.
Elevated “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels are known to be major risk factors for heart disease. Broccoli may play a role in improving these markers.
One study noticed significantly reduced triglycerides and “bad” LDL cholesterol, as well as increased “good” HDL cholesterol levels in people who were treated with a powdered broccoli sprout supplement ().
Some research also supports the notion that specific antioxidants in broccoli may reduce your overall risk of heart attack ().
A study in mice fed broccoli sprouts revealed a potentially protective effect against cell death and oxidative stress in heart tissue following a cardiac arrest ().
Additionally, higher intake of fiber-rich foods like broccoli is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease ().
Summary Research indicates that broccoli may help reduce various heart disease risk factors and prevent heart tissue damage.
Broccoli is rich in fiber and antioxidants — both of which may support healthy bowel function and digestive health.
Bowel regularity and a strong community of healthy bacteria within your colon are two vital components to digestive health. Eating fiber- and antioxidant-rich foods like broccoli may play a role in maintaining healthy gut function (, , ).
A study in mice on a broccoli diet found reduced levels of inflammation in the colon, as well as favorable changes in gut bacteria ().
A recent human study indicated that people who ate broccoli were able to defecate more easily than individuals in the control group ().
Though these results are promising, more human research is needed to better understand how broccoli affects digestive health.
Summary Eating broccoli may support bowel regularity and healthy gut bacteria, though more research is needed.
Some of the nutrients and bioactive compounds in broccoli may slow mental decline and support healthy brain and nervous tissue function.
A study in 960 older adults revealed that one serving per day of dark green vegetables, such as broccoli, may help resist mental decline associated with aging ().
Additionally, an animal study showed that mice treated with kaempferol — a compound in broccoli — had lowered incidence of brain injury and reduced inflammation of neural tissue following a stroke-like event ().
Sulforaphane is another potent bioactive compound present in broccoli with the potential to support brain function after an event of reduced oxygenation to the brain.
In some studies, mice treated with sulforaphane showed significant brain tissue recovery and reduced neural inflammation following brain injury or toxic exposure (, , ).
Most current research evaluating the effect of bioactive compounds found in broccoli on brain health are restricted to animal studies. More research is needed to determine how these compounds support neurological function in humans.
Summary Multiple animal studies show that specific bioactive compounds in broccoli may have a protective effect on brain tissue. However, more research is needed to establish this relationship in humans.
The process of aging is largely attributed to oxidative stress and reduced metabolic function over the course of your lifespan (36).
Though aging is an unavoidable natural process, diet quality is thought to be a major player in determining genetic expression and development of age-related diseases ().
Research shows that sulforaphane, a key bioactive compound in broccoli, may have the capacity to slow the biochemical process of aging by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes ().
Still, more human research is needed to determine a cause-and-effect relationship between dietary intake of broccoli and its effect on the aging process.
Summary Sulforaphane, a compound found in broccoli, may be able to slow the aging process. More human research is needed to better understand this function.
The human immune system is complex and requires a multitude of nutrients to function properly.
Vitamin C is arguably the most essential nutrient for immune function — and broccoli is loaded with it.
Research indicates that vitamin C plays a role in both the prevention and treatment of various illnesses. A daily intake of 100–200 mg of vitamin C seems to be sufficient to prevent certain infections ().
Typically, vitamin C is associated with oranges or strawberries, but broccoli definitely deserves credit — a half-cup (78-gram) serving of cooked broccoli boasts 84% of the RDI for this vitamin (3).
Summary Broccoli provides an excellent source of vitamin C, a nutrient known to support healthy immune response.
Broccoli contains a wide array of nutrients, some of which are known to support oral health and prevent dental diseases.
Broccoli is a good source of vitamin C and calcium, two nutrients associated with a decreased risk of periodontal disease. Kaempferol, a flavonoid found in broccoli, may also play a role in preventing periodontitis (39, ).
Additional research indicates that the sulforaphane found in broccoli may reduce your risk of oral cancers ().
Some sources claim that eating raw broccoli can help manually remove plaque and whiten your teeth. However, no rigorous scientific data exists to support this.
Ultimately, more human research is needed to better understand broccoli’s role in maintaining a healthy mouth.
Summary Certain nutrients found in broccoli are associated with a decreased risk of certain dental and oral diseases.
Many of the nutrients found in broccoli are known to support healthy bones and may prevent bone-related disorders.
It also contains phosphorus, zinc and vitamins A and C, which are necessary for healthy bones as well (45).
A test-tube study indicates that the sulforaphane found in broccoli may aid in preventing osteoarthritis. However, more research is needed to draw any definitive conclusions on its role in humans ().
Summary Many of the nutrients in broccoli — including calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus — are necessary for maintaining healthy bones. Additionally, early research indicates that certain antioxidants in broccoli may prevent some joint disorders.
Your body requires a multitude of vitamins, minerals and protein during pregnancy to support both baby and mother.
Broccoli is a good source of B vitamins — namely B9, also known as folate.
Folate is an essential nutrient for the development of the fetal brain and spinal cord. Regular consumption of folate-rich foods like broccoli can help ensure healthy pregnancy outcomes.
Additionally, some animal studies indicate that broccoli eaten by the mother may support healthier cognitive development of the newborn (, ).
More research is needed to better understand how broccoli and its bioactive compounds may support healthier pregnancy outcomes.
Summary Broccoli contains nutrients vital for certain aspects of fetal development. Folate is particularly important in this regard. However, more research is necessary to study this topic further.
Skin cancer is on the rise due in part to a damaged ozone layer and increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays ().
Research indicates that bioactive compounds in broccoli may protect against UV radiation damage which leads to skin cancer.
In some animal studies, treatment with broccoli extract resulted in significantly reduced tumor growth and prevalence in mice with UV radiation-induced skin cancer (, , ).
Small human studies have achieved similar results, revealing a significant protective effect of broccoli extract against skin damage and cancer development after sun exposure ().
Ultimately, more research is needed to understand how broccoli and its bioactive components may protect skin from sun damage.
Summary Small animal and human studies showed significantly reduced tumor growth when broccoli extract was used as a protective therapy against UV radiation.
Broccoli is a nutrient-rich vegetable that may enhance your health in a variety of ways, such as by reducing inflammation, improving blood sugar control, boosting immunity and promoting heart health.
However, keep in mind that good health doesn’t come from any single food. Broccoli is merely one of numerous healthy foods that can contribute to optimal health.
Including this nutritious vegetable in your healthy, balanced diet may help you achieve your health goals more easily.