Maintaining a healthy diet during pregnancy is very important.
During this time, your body needs additional nutrients, vitamins and minerals (1).
In fact, you may need 350–500 extra calories each day during the second and third trimesters (2).
Poor eating habits and excess weight gain may also increase your risk of gestational diabetes and pregnancy or birth complications (6).
Put simply, choosing healthy, nutritious foods will help ensure the health of you and your baby.
It will also make it a lot easier to lose the pregnancy weight after you’ve given birth.
Here are 13 highly nutritious foods to eat when you’re pregnant.
Dairy products contain two types of high-quality protein: casein and whey. Dairy is the best dietary source of calcium, and provides high amounts of phosphorus, various B vitamins, magnesium and zinc.
People who are lactose intolerant may also be able to tolerate yogurt, especially probiotic yogurt (13).
Taking probiotic supplements during pregnancy may reduce your risk of complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, vaginal infections and allergies (14).
Summary Dairy products, especially yogurt, are a great choice for pregnant women. They help you meet increased protein and calcium needs. Probiotics may also help reduce the risk of complications.
This group of food includes lentils, peas, beans, chickpeas, soybeans and peanuts.
Legumes are excellent plant-based sources of fiber, protein, iron, folate (B9) and calcium — all of which your body needs more of during pregnancy.
Folate is one of the B vitamins (B9). It’s very important for the health of the mother and fetus, especially during the first trimester.
This has been linked with an increased risk of neural tube defects and low birth weight. Insufficient folate intake may also cause your child to become more prone to infections and disease later in life (17, 18).
Furthermore, legumes are generally very high in fiber. Some varieties are also high in iron, magnesium and potassium.
Summary Legumes are great sources of folate, fiber and many other nutrients. Folate is a very important nutrient during pregnancy and may reduce the risk of some birth defects and diseases.
Sweet potatoes are very rich in beta-carotene, a plant compound that is converted into vitamin A in your body.
Vitamin A is essential for growth and the differentiation of most cells and tissues. It’s very important for healthy fetal development (20).
However, they are also advised to avoid very high amounts of animal-based sources of vitamin A, which may cause toxicity when eaten in excess (24).
Therefore, beta-carotene is a very important source of vitamin A for pregnant women.
Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of beta-carotene. About 3.5–5.3 ounces (100–150 grams) of cooked sweet potato fulfills the entire Reference Daily Intake (RDI) (25).
Summary Sweet potatoes are an excellent source of beta-carotene, which your body transforms into vitamin A. Vitamin A is important for the growth and differentiation of cells in your growing fetus.
Salmon is very rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids.
Omega-3 fatty acids are essential during pregnancy, especially the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA.
These are found in high amounts in seafood, and help build the brain and eyes of your fetus (30).
This has caused some women to avoid seafood altogether, thus limiting their intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids.
What’s more, salmon is one of the very few natural sources of vitamin D, which is often lacking in the diet. It’s very important for many processes in your body, including bone health and immune function (34, 35).
Summary Salmon contains the essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are important for brain and eye development in your growing baby. It’s also a natural source of vitamin D.
Eggs are the ultimate health food, as they contain a little bit of almost every nutrient you need.
A large egg contains 77 calories, as well as high-quality protein and fat. It also packs many vitamins and minerals.
A dietary survey in the US showed that over 90% of people consumed less than the recommended amount of choline (37).
Summary Whole eggs are incredibly nutritious and a great way to increase your overall nutrient intake. They also contain choline, an essential nutrient for brain health and development.
Broccoli and dark, green vegetables, such as kale and spinach, contain many of the nutrients pregnant women need.
These include fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin A, calcium, iron, folate and potassium.
Summary Broccoli and leafy greens contain most of the nutrients that pregnant women need. They’re also rich in fiber, which may help prevent or treat constipation.
Beef, pork and chicken are excellent sources of high-quality protein.
Furthermore, beef and pork are also rich in iron, choline and other B vitamins — all of which are needed in higher amounts during pregnancy.
Iron is an essential mineral that is used by red blood cells as a part of hemoglobin. It’s important for delivering oxygen to all cells in your body.
Pregnant women need more iron since their blood volume is increasing. This is particularly important during the third trimester.
However, for those who can, eating red meat regularly may help increase the amount of iron acquired from the diet.
Eating foods that are rich in vitamin C, such as oranges or bell peppers, may also help increase absorption of iron from meals.
Summary Lean meat is a good source of high-quality protein. Beef and pork are also rich in iron, choline and B vitamins, all of which are important nutrients during pregnancy.
Fish liver oil is made from the oily liver of fish, most often cod.
The oil is very rich in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are essential for fetal brain and eye development (30).
Fish liver oil is also very high in vitamin D, of which many people don’t get enough. It may be highly beneficial for those who don’t regularly eat seafood or supplement with omega-3 or vitamin D.
Low vitamin D intake has been linked with an increased risk of preeclampsia. This potentially dangerous complication is characterized by high blood pressure, swelling of the hands and feet and protein in the urine (48, 49).
Consuming cod liver oil during early pregnancy has been linked to higher birth weight and a lower risk of disease later in the baby’s life (50).
A single serving (one tablespoon or 15 ml) of fish liver oil provides more than the recommended daily intake of omega-3, vitamin D and vitamin A.
However, it’s not recommended to consume more than one serving per day, as too much preformed vitamin A can be dangerous for your fetus. High levels of omega-3 may also have blood-thinning effects (51).
Summary A single serving (one tablespoon or 15 ml) of fish liver oil provides more than the required amount of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D and vitamin A. Fish liver oil may be particularly important for women who don’t eat seafood.
Berries are packed with water, healthy carbs, vitamin C, fiber and antioxidants.
They generally contain high amounts of vitamin C, which helps your body absorb iron.
Berries have a relatively low glycemic index value, so they should not cause major spikes in blood sugar.
Berries are also a great snack, as they contain both water and fiber. They provide a lot of flavor and nutrition, but with relatively few calories.
Summary Berries contain water, carbs, vitamin C, fiber, vitamins, antioxidants and plant compounds. They may help pregnant women increase their nutrient and water intake.
Eating whole grains may help pregnant women meet their increased calorie requirements, especially during the second and third trimesters.
As opposed to refined grains, whole grains are packed with fiber, vitamins and plant compounds.
Oats and quinoa also contain a fair amount of protein, which is important during pregnancy.
Summary Whole grains are packed with fiber, vitamins and plant compounds. They’re also rich in B vitamins, fiber and magnesium — all of which pregnant women need.
They’re also high in fiber, B vitamins (especially folate), vitamin K, potassium, copper, vitamin E and vitamin C.
Because of their high content of healthy fats, folate and potassium, avocados are a great choice for pregnant women.
The healthy fats help build the skin, brain and tissues of your fetus, and folate may help prevent neural tube defects (56).
Summary Avocados contain high amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids, fiber, folate and potassium. They may help improve fetal health and relieve leg cramps that are common in pregnant women.
Dried fruit is generally high in calories, fiber and various vitamins and minerals.
One piece of dried fruit contains the same amount of nutrients as fresh fruit, just without all the water and in a much smaller form.
Therefore, one serving of dried fruit can provide a large percentage of the recommended intake of many vitamins and minerals, including folate, iron and potassium.
Prunes are rich in fiber, potassium, vitamin K and sorbitol. They’re natural laxatives and may be very helpful in relieving constipation.
However, dried fruit also contains high amounts of natural sugar. Make sure to avoid the candied varieties, which contain even more sugar.
Although dried fruit may help increase calorie and nutrient intake, it’s generally not recommended to consume more than one serving at a time.
Summary Dried fruit may be highly beneficial for pregnant women since they are small and nutrient-dense. Just make sure to limit your portions and avoid candied varieties, to prevent excess sugar intake.
During pregnancy, blood volume increases by up to 1.5 liters or about 50 ounces. Therefore, it’s important to stay properly hydrated (60).
Your fetus usually gets everything it needs, but if you don’t watch your water intake, you may become dehydrated.
General guidelines recommend drinking about 68 ounces or 2 liters of water per day, but the amount you really need varies by individual.
As an estimate, you should be drinking about 34–68 ounces (1–2 liters) each day. Just keep in mind that you also get water from other foods and beverages, such as fruit, vegetables, coffee and tea.
As a rule of thumb, you should always drink water when you’re thirsty and drink until you’ve quenched your thirst.
Summary Drinking water is important as your blood volume increases during pregnancy. Adequate hydration may also help prevent constipation and urinary tract infections.
What you eat during pregnancy affects your energy and well-being.
It may also directly affect the health and development of your baby.
Since calorie and nutrient needs are increased, it’s very important that you choose nutrient-dense, healthy foods.
Gaining weight during pregnancy is normal, but it’s important to gain it in a healthy way. This benefits you, your baby and your health after the pregnancy.
This list should be a good start towards a healthy, well-nourished pregnancy.