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What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that only occurs in pregnant women. That means you can’t get gestational diabetes unless you’re pregnant. You may develop gestational diabetes for the first time during pregnancy or you might have a mild undiagnosed case of diabetes that gets worse when you’re pregnant.

During pregnancy, the way that your body uses insulin changes. The hormone insulin breaks the foods you eat down into glucose, or sugar. You then use that glucose for energy.

You’ll naturally become more resistant to insulin when you’re pregnant to help provide your baby with more glucose. In some women, the process goes wrong and your body either stops responding to insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin to give you the glucose you need. When that happens, you’ll have too much sugar in your blood. That causes gestational diabetes.

If you’ve recently been diagnosed with gestational diabetes or are curious about what will happen if you’re diagnosed with it, keep reading. You’ll learn more about maintaining a healthy pregnancy.

What foods should you eat?

Basic healthy eating

  1. Eat protein with every meal.
  2. Include daily fruits and vegetables in your diet.
  3. Limit or avoid processed foods.
  4. Pay attention to portion sizes to avoid overeating.

If you have gestational diabetes, maintaining a healthy, balanced diet may help you manage your symptoms without needing medication. In general, your diet should include protein plus the right mix of carbohydrates and fats. Too many carbohydrates can lead to spikes in your blood sugar.

Once you’re diagnosed, ask your doctor about working with a registered dietitian or nutritionist. They can help you plan your meals, figure out your optimal carb intake, and come up with an eating plan that will keep you and your baby healthy.


Aim to base your meals around protein. Include lots of fresh foods and limit your intake of processed foods.

Aim to base your meals around protein. Include lots of fresh foods and limit your intake of processed foods.

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) has a helpful guide called MyPlate to help you learn how to build a healthy plate for each meal. For example, each meal should be 25 percent protein, 25 percent starch, and 50 percent non-starchy foods, such as vegetables or salad.

These are generalized diet guidelines for gestational diabetes. If you’ve been diagnosed with gestational diabetes, be sure to talk with your doctor or dietician. They can provide you with a personalized meal plan and other specific recommendations.

Snacks and meals

Here are a few healthy choices for snacks and meals if you have gestational diabetes:

Also try these recipes for diabetes-friendly smoothies, protein drinks, vegetable soups, and more.

What about fruit?

You can still eat fruit if you have diabetes. You’ll just need to keep track of how much you’re eating.

Your doctor or dietitian can teach you how to count your carbohydrates to make sure you aren’t consuming more carbohydrates than you’d like. Go here to discover seven types of fruit you should be eating during pregnancy.

What foods should you avoid?

You will want to avoid highly processed foods, such as white bread, and, in general, anything that has a lot sugar. For example, you’ll want to be sure to avoid the following:

If you’re unsure, ask your doctor about foods you typically eat. They can help you identify what to avoid.

What are the complications?

Gestational diabetes can be risky to both you and your baby. The extra glucose in your body can make your baby gain weight. A bigger baby puts you at risk for having a more difficult delivery because:

Gestational diabetes also increases your risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy.

In most cases, gestational diabetes disappears after your baby is born. But if you had diabetes before pregnancy, you’ll still have it after you give birth.

Having gestational diabetes does put you at an increased risk of developing diabetes later on in life, too. Both you and your baby will be checked for diabetes after birth.

How is gestational diabetes treated?

The treatment for gestational diabetes depends on your blood glucose levels.

In many cases, gestational diabetes can be treated with diet and exercise. In some cases, you’ll need to take oral medication such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza) or injectable insulin to lower your blood sugar.

Other steps for a healthy pregnancy

In addition to maintaining a well-balanced diet, there are other things you can do to have a healthy pregnancy:

  • Exercise regularly. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise three days a week. Don’t be afraid to incorporate a wide range of activity while you’re pregnant. Just remember to speak to your doctor before starting any new exercises. Regular exercise will also help keep your blood sugar levels stable.
  • Eat every two hours. To regulate your blood sugar levels, never skip meals and aim to eat a healthy snack or meal every two hours. Skipping meals can cause your blood sugar levels to fluctuate and make it harder to get them back under control.
  • Take your prenatal vitamins.
  • See your doctor as often as they recommend.

Shop for prenatal vitamins.

If you’re diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy, know that with the right diet and exercise, you can have a healthy pregnancy, labor, and delivery.