Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is when your blood pressure is lower than normal. The opposite is high blood pressure or hypertension.

Your blood pressure naturally changes throughout the day. Your body constantly adjusts and balances your blood pressure. This helps to make sure every part of your body — including the brain, heart, and lungs — is getting plenty of blood and oxygen.

Low blood pressure can be normal. It may not cause any symptoms or be a cause for concern.

Blood pressure may even change with your body position. For example, if you stand up suddenly, it may drop for an instant. Your blood pressure also lowers when you’re resting or asleep.

Some health conditions can cause low blood pressure. This can lead to too little blood and oxygen to some parts of your body. Treating the condition helps to raise blood pressure.

The symptoms of low blood pressure can include:

  • blurred vision
  • confusion
  • depression
  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • fatigue
  • feeling cold
  • feeling thirsty
  • an inability to concentrate
  • nausea
  • rapid, shallow breathing
  • sweating

Blood pressure, or BP, is the force of blood against the blood vessel walls. Blood is pumped throughout the entire body by the heart.

Blood pressure is measured with two different numbers. The first or top number is called systolic pressure. This is the pressure while the heart is beating.

The second or bottom number is called diastolic pressure. It’s the pressure while the heart rests between beats. Diastolic pressure is typically lower than systolic pressure. Both are measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

Typical healthy blood pressure is about 120/80 mm Hg. It can fluctuate slightly even in healthy people. According to the Mayo Clinic, hypotension is when your blood pressure is lower than 90/60 mm Hg.

1. Drink plenty of water

Dehydration can sometimes lead to low blood pressure. Some people may have hypotension even with mild dehydration.

You can also get dehydrated by losing water too quickly. This can happen through vomiting, severe diarrhea, fever, strenuous exercise, and excess sweating. Medications such as diuretics may also cause dehydration.

2. Eat a balanced diet

Low blood pressure and other side effects may occur if you’re not getting enough nutrients.

Low levels of vitamin B-12, folic acid, and iron can cause anemia. This condition happens when your body can’t make enough blood. Anemia can lower blood pressure. This in turn can cause low blood pressure.

Your doctor may recommend changes to your daily diet and taking supplements.

3. Eat smaller meals

You can get low blood pressure after eating a big meal, although this is more common in older adults. This happens because blood flows to your digestive tract after you eat. Normally, your heart rate increases to help balance blood pressure.

You can prevent low blood pressure by eating smaller meals. Also, limiting your carbs can help keep blood pressure more stable after eating. Here are more suggestions for foods you can eat and eating habits you can practice.

4. Limit or avoid alcohol

Drinking alcohol can lead to dehydration. It can also interact with medications and cause low blood pressure.

5. Eat more salt

Sodium helps to raise blood pressure. However, it can raise blood pressure too much. It can also lead to heart disease. Ask your doctor how much is right for you.

Add table salt to whole, unprocessed foods. This helps to control how much salt you’re eating. Avoid refined and processed salty foods.

6. Check your blood sugar

Diabetes and high blood sugar levels may lead to low blood pressure.

Use a home monitor to check your blood sugar levels several times a day. See your doctor to find out the best diet, exercise, and medication plan to help balance blood sugar levels.

7. Get your thyroid checked

Thyroid conditions are very common. Hypothyroidism occurs when you don’t produce enough thyroid hormones. This can lead to low blood pressure.

A simple blood test can tell your doctor if you have this condition. You may need medication and dietary changes to help boost your thyroid function.

8. Wear compression stockings

Elastic stockings or socks can help prevent blood from pooling in your legs. This helps to relieve orthostatic or postural hypotension which is low blood pressure due to standing, laying down, or sitting too much.

People who are on bed rest may need compression braces to help pump blood from the legs. Orthostatic hypotension is more common in older adults. It happens to up to 11 percent of middle-aged people and 30 percent of older adults.

9. Take medications

Your doctor may prescribe medications to help treat low blood pressure. These drugs help to treat orthostatic hypotension:

  • fludrocortisone, which helps to raise blood volume
  • midodrine (Orvaten), which helps to narrow blood vessels to raise blood pressure

If someone’s BP is dangerously low from sepsis, other medications may be used to raise blood pressure. These include:

  • alpha-adrenoceptor agonists
  • dopamine
  • epinephrine
  • norepinephrine
  • phenylephrine
  • vasopressin analogs

10. Treat infections

Some serious bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can cause low blood pressure. Your doctor can find out if you have an infection with a blood test. Treatment includes IV antibiotics and antiviral drugs.

For more ways to raise low blood pressure, read through the causes below.

There are several causes of low blood pressure. Some are temporary and can be easily fixed.

Low blood pressure may also be a sign of a health issue or emergency condition. Treatment may be necessary.

Several health conditions can cause low blood pressure. These include:

Diagnosing and treating these conditions can help balance blood pressure. Your doctor may recommend simple tests such as:

  • blood tests to check hormone levels, blood sugar levels, and for infections
  • an electrocardiogram (ECG) or Holter monitor to check heart rhythm and function
  • an echocardiogram to check your heart health
  • an exercise stress test to check your heart health
  • a tilt table test to check low blood pressure due to changes in body position
  • the Valsalva maneuver, a breathing test to check for nervous system causes of low blood pressure

Medications

Some medications can cause low blood pressure. These include drugs to treat high blood pressure and other conditions, such as:

Drinking alcohol or using recreational drugs while taking medications, or combining certain medications can also lead to low blood pressure. You should always tell your doctor what you’re taking to ensure they know of any risks.

Shock

Shock is a life-threating condition. It can happen in response to a number of emergency conditions. These include:

Shock leads to low blood pressure, but low blood pressure can also cause your body to go into shock. Treatment may involve raising blood pressure by IV fluids or blood transfusions.

Treating the cause of the shock helps to raise blood pressure.

For example, in anaphylactic shock, an injection of epinephrine (EpiPen) helps to quickly raise blood pressure. This can be life-saving for someone having a severe allergic reaction to peanuts, bee stings, or other allergens.

In a first aid situation, it’s important to keep the person experiencing shock warm and monitor them until medical help is present. The Mayo Clinic suggests having them lay down with their feet elevated at least 12 inches off the ground, as long as this doesn’t cause pain or further problems.

Stroke

Stroke is a leading cause of death. It’s also a major cause of serious and long-term disability.

High blood pressure is a major cause of stroke. It’s important to control blood pressure to prevent strokes, and to keep strokes from happening again. However, some medical research shows that keeping blood pressure high immediately after a stroke may actually help prevent brain damage. This helps to reduce the risk of death and disability.

The American Stroke Association advises keeping blood pressure higher than normal for up to 72 hours after a stroke. This may help to infuse the brain with blood better and help it recover from the stroke.

Having low blood pressure once in a while isn’t likely a cause for concern. Some people have low blood pressure all the time.

Tell your doctor if you have any symptoms. Keep a journal of your symptoms and what you were doing when they happened. This can help your doctor diagnose the cause of your low blood pressure.

If you have orthostatic hypotension, avoid symptom triggers, such as standing too much. Also avoid other triggers such as emotionally upsetting situations.

Learn to recognize triggers and symptoms. Put your head down or lay down if you feel dizzy or lightheaded. These symptoms usually pass quickly. Children and teens who have low blood pressure due to body position typically grow out of it.

You may need simple changes to your daily diet to balance low blood pressure. Drink more water by using a portable water bottle. Use an alarm or timer to remind you to take a sip.

If you think a medication may be causing your low blood pressure, ask your doctor to recommend a different one. Don’t stop taking it or change dosages without talking to your doctor first.