Xanthoma is a condition in which fatty growths develop underneath the skin. These growths can appear anywhere on the body, but they typically form on the:
- joints, especially the knees and elbows
Xanthomas can vary in size. The growths may be as small as a pinhead or as large as a grape. They often look like a flat bump under the skin and sometimes appear yellow or orange.
They usually don’t cause any pain. However, they might be tender and itchy. There may be clusters of growths in the same area or several individual growths on different parts of the body.
Xanthoma is usually caused by high levels of blood lipids, or fats. This may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as:
- hyperlipidemia, or high blood cholesterol levels
- diabetes, a group of diseases that causes high blood sugar levels
- hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid doesn’t produce hormones
- primary biliary cirrhosis, a disease in which the bile ducts in the liver are slowly destroyed
- cholestasis, a condition in which the flow of bile from the liver slows or stops
- nephrotic syndrome, a disorder that damages the blood vessels in the kidneys
- hematologic disease, such as monoclonal gammopathy metabolic lipid disorders. These are genetic conditions that affect the body’s ability to break down substances and to maintain important bodily functions, such as digestion of fats.
- cancer, a serious condition in which malignant cells grow at a rapid, uncontrolled rate
- side effect of certain medications, such as tamoxifen, prednisone (Rayos), and cyclosporine (Neoral, Gengraf, Sandimmune)
Xanthoma itself isn’t dangerous, but the underlying condition that’s causing it needs to be addressed. There’s also a type of xanthoma that affects the eyelids called xanthelasma.
Talk to your doctor about your risk and what you can do to minimize the chances of developing the condition.
Your doctor or dermatologist can typically diagnose xanthoma. They may be able to make a diagnosis simply by examining your skin. A skin biopsy can confirm the presence of a fatty deposit beneath the skin.
During this procedure, your doctor may remove a small sample of tissue from the growth and send it to a laboratory for analysis. Your doctor will follow up with you to discuss the results.
They may also order blood tests to check blood lipid levels, assess liver function, and rule out diabetes.
If xanthoma is a symptom of a medical condition, then the underlying cause must be treated. This will often get rid of the growths and minimize the likelihood that they’ll return. Diabetes and cholesterol levels that are well-controlled are less likely to cause xanthoma.
Other treatments for xanthoma include surgical removal, laser surgery, or chemical treatment with trichloroacetic acid. Xanthoma growths can return after treatment, however, so these methods don’t necessarily cure the condition.
Talk to your doctor to see which treatment is right for you. They can help determine whether the condition can be treated through medical management of the underlying issue.
Xanthoma may not be completely preventable. But there are steps you can take to lower your risk of developing the condition. If you have a hyperlipidemia or diabetes, follow your doctor’s instructions on how to treat and manage it.
You should also attend all regular follow-up appointments with your doctor. Tell your doctor about all the medications you’re taking.
It’s also important to maintain appropriate blood lipid and cholesterol levels. You can do this by eating healthy foods, exercising regularly, and taking any necessary medications. Getting regular blood tests can also help you keep your lipid and cholesterol levels in check.