What is estrogen?
Your body’s hormones are like a seesaw. When they’re perfectly balanced, your body works as it should. But when they’re unbalanced, you may begin experiencing problems.
Estrogen is known as the “female” hormone. Testosterone is known as the “male” hormone. Although each hormone is identified with a specific sex, both are found in women and men. On average, women have higher levels of estrogen and men have more testosterone.
In women, estrogen helps initiate sexual development. Along with another female sex hormone known as progesterone, it also regulates a woman’s menstrual cycle and affects her entire reproductive system. In premenopausal women, estrogen and progesterone levels vary from one stage of the menstrual cycle to another.
In men, estrogen also plays an important role in sexual function.
High levels of estrogen can develop naturally, but too much estrogen can also result from taking certain medications. For example, estrogen replacement therapy, a popular treatment for symptoms of menopause, may cause estrogen to reach problematic levels.
Your body may also develop low testosterone or low progesterone levels, which can upset your hormonal balance. If you have estrogen levels that are abnormally high relative to your progesterone levels, it’s known as estrogen dominance.
When your body’s estrogen and testosterone levels aren’t balanced, you may begin developing certain symptoms. In women, potential symptoms include:
- swelling and tenderness in your breasts
- fibrocystic lumps in your breasts
- decreased sex drive
- irregular menstrual periods
- increased symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
- mood swings
- anxiety and panic attacks
- weight gain
- hair loss
- cold hands or feet
- trouble sleeping
- sleepiness or fatigue
- memory problems
Although it’s called the female hormone, a man’s body also makes estrogen. A healthy balance of estrogen and testosterone is important for sexual growth and development. When these hormones become imbalanced, your sexual development and function may be affected.
Symptoms of high estrogen in men include:
- Infertility. Estrogen is partly responsible for creating healthy sperm. When estrogen levels are high, sperm levels may fall and lead to fertility issues.
- Gynecomastia. Estrogen may stimulate breast tissue growth. Men with too much estrogen may develop gynecomastia, a condition which leads to larger breasts.
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Men with high levels of estrogen may have difficulty getting or maintaining an erection.
If your doctor suspects that you might have high estrogen, they’ll likely order a blood test to check your hormone levels. A trained professional will collect a sample of your blood to be tested in a laboratory. The results will indicate if your estrogen levels are too low or too high. Blood estrogen levels are measured in pictograms per milliliter (pg/mL).
There are three types of estrogen: estradiol, estriol, and estrone. Estradiol is the primary female sex hormone. Estriol and estrone are minor female sex hormones. Estriol is nearly undetectable in women who aren’t pregnant.
Normal estrogen levels in women
|Prepubescent female||Undetectable–29 pg/mL||Undetectable–20 pg/ml|
|Pubescent female||10–200 pg/mL||Undetectable–350 pg/ml|
|Premenopausal adult female||17–200 pg/mL||15–350 pg/ml|
|Postmenopausal adult female||7–40 pg/mL||<10 pg/ml|
In premenopausal girls and women, estradiol levels vary widely throughout the menstrual cycle.
Normal estrogen levels in men
According to Mayo Medical Laboratories, the following estrone and estradiol levels are considered normal for men:
|Prepubescent male||Undetectable–16 pg/ml||Undetectable–13 pg/ml|
|Pubescent male||Undetectable–60 pg/ml||Undetectable–40 pg/ml|
|Adult male||10–60 pg/ml||10–40 pg/ml|
To manage high estrogen or estrogen dominance, your doctor might prescribe medications, recommend surgery, or encourage you to adjust your diet.
If you develop high estrogen while undergoing hormone therapy, your doctor might change your hormone therapy plan. This might help your body achieve a healthier hormone balance.
If you have a type of cancer that’s sensitive to estrogen, high estrogen levels can make the cancer worse. Your doctor might prescribe medications to block cancer cells from binding to estrogen. For example, they might prescribe tamoxifen.
Alternatively, they might prescribe an aromatase inhibitor. This type of medication stops the enzyme aromatase from converting androgens into estrogen. This class of drug includes:
- anastrozole (Arimidex)
- exemestane (Aromasin)
- letrozole (Femara)
In other cases, they might prescribe a medication that stops your ovaries from producing estrogen. For example, they might prescribe:
- goserelin (Zoladex)
- leuprolide (Lupron)
If you have a type of cancer that’s sensitive to estrogen, your doctor might also recommend an oophorectomy. This is a type of surgery used to remove ovaries. Since ovaries produce most of the estrogen in women’s bodies, removing them lowers estrogen levels. This causes what is known as surgical menopause.
- You have a strong family history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer.
- You test positive for a specific mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene.
- You test positive for a specific mutation in other genes associated with cancer risk.
According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), removing both ovaries appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer in very-high-risk patients by about 50 percent.
Your doctor can also use radiation therapy to make your ovaries inactive.
To help lower your estrogen levels, your doctor might recommend changes to your eating habits. For example, they might encourage you to eat a low-fat and high-fiber diet. They might also encourage you to lose excess weight.
High levels of estrogen can put you at a higher risk of some other conditions. For example, elevated estrogen levels are a risk factor for breast cancer and ovarian cancer. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), estrogen dominance can also increase your risk of endometrial cancer.
Estrogen dominance may also increase your chances of thyroid dysfunction. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue and weight changes.
If you’re experiencing unusual symptoms, make an appointment to see your doctor. They can help you learn if these symptoms are caused by high estrogen. It’s important to treat high estrogen and any underlying cause. Treatment can help reduce your symptoms and your risk of complications.