Known also as an E2 test, an estradiol test measures the amount of the hormone estradiol in your blood, which is essential for bone and joint health in females and helps control how fat is distributed in the body.

What is an estradiol test?

An estradiol test measures the amount of the hormone estradiol in your blood. It’s also called an E2 test.

Estradiol is a form of the hormone estrogen. It’s also called 17 beta-estradiol. The ovaries, breasts, and adrenal glands make estradiol. During pregnancy, the placenta also makes estradiol.

Estradiol helps with the growth and development of female sex organs, including the:

Estradiol helps to control the way fat is distributed in the female body. It’s also essential for bone and joint health in females.

Males also have estradiol in their bodies. Their levels of estradiol are lower than the levels in females. In males, the adrenal glands and testes make estradiol. Estradiol has been shown in vitro to prevent destruction of sperm cells, but its clinical importance in sexual function and development in men is likely less significant than in women.

Your doctor may order an estradiol test if female or male sex characteristics aren’t developing at the normal rate. An estradiol level that’s higher than normal indicates that puberty is happening earlier than usual. This is a condition known as precocious puberty.

Lower levels of estradiol may indicate late puberty. The test can help your doctor find out if there are problems with your adrenal glands. It can also help determine if treatment for hypopituitarism, or decreased function of the pituitary gland, is working.

Your doctor may order estradiol testing to look for causes of:

Your doctor may also order an estradiol test if your menstrual cycle has stopped and you’re having symptoms of menopause. During and after menopause, a woman’s body will gradually produce less estrogen and estradiol, contributing to the symptoms experienced during menopause. A test of your estradiol level can help your doctor determine if you’re preparing to enter menopause or you’re already going through the transition.

The estradiol test can also indicate how well the ovaries are working. Therefore, your doctor may also order this test if you have symptoms of an ovarian tumor. The symptoms include:

If you’re pregnant or you’re on infertility treatments, your doctor may order an estradiol test to help keep track of your progress.

An estradiol test usually isn’t used alone to make a diagnosis. However, the results of this test may help your doctor decide if further testing is necessary.

People undergoing transgender hormone therapy may receive estradiol. If so, their estradiol levels may be regularly tested and monitored by their doctors.

The risks associated with having an estradiol test are low. They include:

  • multiple punctures due to trouble finding a vein
  • excessive bleeding
  • feeling lightheaded
  • fainting
  • hematoma, which is an accumulation of blood under your skin
  • infection at the needle puncture site

Certain factors can affect estradiol levels. It’s important that you and your doctor discuss these factors. They may ask you to stop taking a certain medication or change the dose before your test.

Medications that can affect your estradiol levels include:

Estradiol levels can also vary throughout the day and with a woman’s menstrual cycle. As a result, your doctor may ask you to have your blood tested at a certain time of day or at a certain time in your cycle. Conditions that can affect estradiol levels include:

An estradiol test is a blood test. This may also be called a blood draw or venipuncture. A technician called a phlebotomist will perform the blood test.

Blood is usually drawn from a vein on the inside of your elbow or the back of your hand. To begin, the technician will use antiseptic to clean the skin. This helps prevent infection. They will then wrap a tourniquet around your upper arm. This causes the vein to swell with blood. The technician will then insert a needle into your vein and draw blood into a tube.

The technician will draw enough blood for the number of tests ordered by your doctor. The blood draw will only take a couple of minutes. The process may be slightly painful. Most people report a pricking or burning sensation.

After drawing the blood, the technician will apply pressure to stop the bleeding. They’ll apply a bandage to the puncture site and send your blood sample to a laboratory for testing. To reduce bruising, the technician may continue to apply pressure to the site for a few minutes.

According to Mayo Medical Laboratories, normal levels of estradiol (E2) for menstruating women range from 15 to 350 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). For postmenopausal women, normal levels should be lower than 10 pg/mL.

Estradiol levels that are higher than normal may suggest:

  • early puberty
  • tumors in the ovaries or testes
  • gynecomastia, which is the development of breasts in men
  • hyperthyroidism, which is caused by an overactive thyroid gland
  • cirrhosis, which is scarring of the liver

Lower than normal levels of estradiol may suggest:

Once the results of your estradiol level test are available, your doctor will discuss the results in detail with you and then present you with options for treatment.