This common sinus inflammation is often caused by a cold or other viral injection. Usually your symptoms will go away within 10 days, but can last up to 4 weeks. A health professional can help diagnose and help you address this with at-home remedies or other treatments.
A stuffed nose and pressure on our cheekbones, near the eyes, or over the forehead may mean that you have acute sinusitis.
Acute sinusitis, also called acute rhinosinusitis, is a short-term inflammation of the membranes that line your nose and surrounding sinuses. This impedes your ability to drain mucus from your nose and sinuses.
As a common health issue affecting 1 in 8 adults each year, acute sinusitis is most often caused by a cold or viral infection. But it can also be due to noninfectious causes, including seasonal allergies, nasal issues, or health conditions like cystic fibrosis.
This article will explain more about acute sinusitis, causes, and how your healthcare team can help diagnose and treat this nasal and sinus inflammation.
Illnesses and conditions that can cause or lead to acute sinusitis include:
- intranasal allergies, such as hay fever
- nasal polyps or other tumors
- deviated nasal septum
- infected adenoids
- cystic fibrosis, an inherited genetic disease where thick, sticky mucus builds up in the body
An infected tooth could also cause acute sinusitis, as bacteria can spread from the infected tooth to the sinuses.
The following factors can increase your risk of developing acute sinusitis:
- intranasal allergies
- nasal passage abnormalities, such as a deviated septum or nasal polyps
- tobacco smoking or frequent breathing in of other pollutants
- large or inflamed adenoids
- spending a lot of time in a day care, preschool, or other areas where infectious germs are frequently present
- activities that result in pressure changes, such as flying and scuba diving
- a weakened immune system
- cystic fibrosis
Symptoms of acute sinusitis include:
- nasal congestion
- thick yellow or green mucus discharge from the nose
- sore throat
- a cough, usually worse at night
- drainage of mucus in the back of your throat
- pain, pressure, or tenderness behind your eyes, nose, cheeks, or forehead
- bad breath
- reduced sense of smell
- reduced sense of taste
Diagnosing acute sinusitis usually involves a physical exam. Your doctor will gently press over your sinuses with their fingers to identify an infection. The exam may involve looking into your nose with a light to identify inflammation, polyps, tumors, or other abnormalities. Your dotor may also take a culture to help diagnose.
Your doctor may also perform the following tests to confirm a diagnosis:
Your doctor may look into your nose using a nasal endoscope. This is a thin, flexible fiber-optic scope. The scope helps your doctor identify inflammation or other abnormalities in your sinuses.
Your doctor may order a CT scan or MRI to look for inflammation or other nose or sinus abnormalities. A CT scan uses rotating X-rays and computers to take detailed, cross-sectional images of your body. An MRI takes 3-D images of your body using radio waves and a magnetic field. Both these tests are noninvasive.
Most cases of acute sinusitis can be treated at home:
- A moist, warm washcloth: Hold it over your sinuses to ease pain symptoms.
- A humidifier: This can help keep the air moist.
- Saline nasal sprays: Use them several times a day to rinse and clear your nasal passages.
- Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of fluids in order to help thin mucus.
- Over-the-counter (OTC) nasal corticosteroid spray: Sprays such as fluticasone propionate (Flonase) can reduce intranasal and sinus inflammation.
- OTC oral decongestant therapy: These therapies, such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), can dry up mucus.
- OTC pain relievers: Medications you can buy in stores OTC like acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) can help relieve sinus pain.
- Sleep with your head elevated: This encourages your sinuses to drain.
Your doctor may prescribe prescription antibiotic therapy if they think you have acute bacterial sinusitis.
If intranasal allergies are thought to be related to your bouts of acute sinusitis, your doctor may have you see an allergist. The allergist can see if other allergy treatments or possibly shots would help you deal with allergic sinusitis more easily.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of acute sinusitis. Your doctor may perform surgery to:
- remove nasal polyps or tumors
- correct a deviated nasal septum
- open the normal passageways to drain your sinuses
- removing an infected or impacted tooth
The following alternative treatments may help relieve your acute sinusitis symptoms:
Nasturtium herb and horseradish may be beneficial for relieving some acute sinusitis symptoms. This therapy produced a lower risk for adverse side effects compared to standard antibiotic therapy, per a
Acupuncture and acupressure
While no hard scientific evidence exists to confirm their effectiveness in treating this condition, some people report that acupuncture and acupressure provide some relief for acute sinusitis caused by allergies.
Most cases of acute sinusitis clear up with home treatment, within a
But sometimes acute sinusitis doesn’t clear up and becomes subacute or chronic sinusitis.
Subacute sinusitis lasts 4-8 weeks total. However, chronic sinusitis can last more than 8 weeks.
In very rare cases, acute infectious sinusitis can lead to an infection that spreads to your eyes, ears, or bones. It could also cause meningitis.
Overall, complications from acute sinusitis
Call your doctor or healthcare team if you experience:
- a severe headache that doesn’t respond to medication
- a high-grade fever
- vision changes
- changes in consciousness
These may be signs that the acute infection has spread outside your sinuses.
You may be able to prevent getting acute sinusitis. Here’s how:
- eat a healthy diet to keep your immune system strong.
- avoid cigarette smoke and other air pollutants.
- minimize your contact with people who have acute respiratory or sinus infections.
- wash your hands often and before meals.
- use a humidifier in dry weather to help keep the air and your sinuses moist.
- get a yearly flu vaccine.
- treat allergies promptly.
- take oral decongestant therapy when you have nasal congestion.
Acute sinusitis is a common condition that as many as 1 in 8 people experience. It’s most often caused by a cold, but can also be caused by allergies, nasal issues, or conditions like cystic fibrosis.
This usually doesn’t last longer than 10 days and resolves on its own, but symptoms can last up to 4 weeks. You can treat it with simple at-home remedies or over-the-counter pain relievers, as well as prescription medications or surgery. You may also try certain herbs and acupuncture.
You may want to consult your healthcare team if you experience a fever or more severe pain, as that can be a signal that your acute sinusitis is worsening.