The femoral artery is one of the major arteries in the human body. It extends from the iliac artery near the abdomen down to the legs. The primary function of this artery is to supply blood to the lower section of the body.
This artery crosses the femoral nerve and femoral vein in such a way as to form a delta shape near the groin region. This portion is known as the femoral triangle or Scarpa’s triangle. The femoral triangle serves as a crucial anatomical landmark for surgeons when surgery needs to be performed in the region. Embalmers use this artery to supply chemicals to the body to preserve it after death.
This artery is anatomically sub-divided into a superficial artery, a deep artery and a common artery. Each of these sub-arteries supplies blood to different parts of the body. The largest branch of the femoral artery is the profunda femoris, which supplies blood to the buttocks and thigh area. The femoral vein runs along this artery to bring the oxygen-depleted blood from these areas back to the heart.