Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are two different types of lipoproteins found in your blood. Lipoproteins are a combination of proteins and various types of fats. They carry cholesterol and triglycerides through your bloodstream.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that’s necessary for building cells. In the body, it’s most commonly created in your liver through a complex pathway. Triglycerides are another type of fat that’s used to store extra energy in your cells.
The main difference between VLDL and LDL is that they have different percentages of the cholesterol, protein, and triglycerides that make up each lipoprotein. VLDL contains more triglycerides. LDL contains more cholesterol.
VLDL and LDL are both considered types of “bad” cholesterol. While your body needs both cholesterol and triglycerides to function, having too much of them can cause them to build up in your arteries. This can increase your risk for heart disease and stroke.
VLDL is created in your liver to carry triglycerides throughout your body. It’s made up of the following components by weight:
|Main components of VLDL||Percentage|
The triglycerides carried by VLDL are used by cells in the body for energy. Eating more carbohydrates, or sugars, than you burn can lead to excessive amounts of triglycerides and high levels of VLDL in your blood. Extra triglycerides are stored in fat cells and released at a later time when needed for energy.
High levels of triglycerides are linked to the buildup of hard deposits in your arteries. These deposits are called plaques. Plaque buildup increases your risk for heart disease and stroke. Experts believe this is due to:
- increased inflammation
- increased blood pressure
- changes in the lining of blood vessels
- low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the “good” cholesterol
Some VLDL is cleared in the bloodstream. The rest is transformed into LDL by enzymes in the blood. LDL has less triglycerides and a higher percentage of cholesterol than VLDL. LDL is largely made up of the following components by weight:
|Main components of LDL||Percentage|
LDL carries cholesterol throughout your body. Too much cholesterol in your body leads to high LDL levels. High LDL levels are also associated with the buildup of plaque in your arteries.
These deposits can eventually lead to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis occurs when deposits of plaque have hardened and narrowed the artery. This increases your risk for having a heart attack and stroke.
Recent guidelines from the American Heart Association now focus on the overall risk for developing heart disease, rather than individual cholesterol results.
Your levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL, along with a variety of other factors, determine which treatment options are best for you.
Talk to your doctor about your cholesterol and how you can lower your risk for heart disease with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and medication, if needed.
The American Heart Association recommends all individuals over the age of 20 get their cholesterol checked every four to six years. Cholesterol levels may need to be followed up more frequently if your risk for heart disease is high or to monitor any treatment.
There’s no specific test for VLDL cholesterol. VLDL is usually estimated based on your triglycerides level. Triglycerides are also usually tested with a cholesterol test.
Many doctors don’t do the calculations to find your estimated VLDL level unless you ask for it specifically or have:
- other risk factors for cardiovascular disease
- certain abnormal cholesterol conditions
- early onset heart disease
Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include:
The strategies for lowering your VLDL and LDL levels are the same: increase physical exercise and eat a healthy variety of foods.
Quitting smoking and decreasing alcohol consumption can be beneficial as well. Your doctor is the best place to start for recommendations on heart-healthy lifestyle changes tailored for you.
- Eat nuts, avocados, steel-cut oatmeal, and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon and halibut.
- Avoid saturated fats, which are found in foods like beef, butter, and cheese.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes a day.