Impaired smell is the inability to smell properly. It can describe a complete inability to smell, or the partial inability to smell. It’s a symptom of several medical conditions and may be temporary or permanent.
Loss of smell can occur due to problems in the nose, brain, or nervous system. Call your doctor if you have difficulty smelling. In certain cases, it’s a sign of a more serious underlying issue.
Impaired smell can be temporary or permanent. Temporary loss of smell usually occurs along with allergies or bacterial or viral infections, such as:
As you age, an impaired sense of smell is normal. The impairment is usually a distorted sense of smell rather than a complete inability to smell.
Other conditions that can cause impaired smell include:
- dementia (memory loss), such as Alzheimer’s
- neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease or Huntington’s disease
- tumors in the brain
- nasal tumors or surgeries
- head injuries
- sinusitis (sinus infection)
- radiation therapy
- viral upper respiratory infections
- hormonal disturbances
- nasal decongestant use
Certain prescription medications, like antibiotics and high blood pressure medications, can also alter your sense of taste or smell.
If you have an impaired sense of smell, call your doctor before using over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products. Let them know when you first noticed the changes in your ability to smell, and about other symptoms you may be experiencing.
Answering the following questions can help the doctor pinpoint what may be causing your impaired sense of smell:
- Can you smell some foods but not others?
- Can you taste foods?
- Do you take any medications?
- What other symptoms do you have?
- Have you recently had a cold or flu?
- Do you have or have you recently had allergies?
After reviewing your medical history, the doctor will perform a physical examination of your nose to see if there are any blockages in your nasal passages. These tests may include:
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- nasal endoscopy (examination of the nasal passages with a thin tube that contains a camera)
These tests will help the doctor get a closer look at the structures within your nose. Imaging tests will reveal whether there’s a polyp or other abnormal growth obstructing your nasal passages. They can also help determine if an abnormal growth or tumor in the brain is altering your sense of smell. In some cases, your doctor may need to take a sample of cells from within the nose to make a diagnosis.
Impaired smell caused by a viral or bacterial infection is often short-lived. If you have a bacterial infection, you may be given antibiotics to speed up the healing process. This will help to restore smell. Decongestants and OTC antihistamines can help relieve nasal congestion caused by allergies.
If you have a stuffy nose and are unable to blow your nose, use a humidifier to moisten the air. Keeping a humidifier in your home can loosen mucus and help relieve congestion.
If a neurological disease, tumor, or other disorder causes your impaired smell, you’ll receive treatment for the underlying condition. Some cases of impaired smell may be permanent.
There’s no sure way to prevent the loss of smell. You can minimize the risk of contracting colds or bacterial infections by taking the following steps:
- Wash your hands frequently throughout the day.
- Wash your hands after touching public areas.
- When possible, avoid people who have colds or the flu.
Be familiar with the possible side effects of all of your prescription medications. Side effects printed in the leaflet material may include impaired smell.