Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that can affect people of all ages, but infection is more common in children and infants.
For many adults and healthy children, an RSV infection causes symptoms similar to those of a cold. In infants, an RSV infection can be more serious.
The infection usually causes no serious damage, but in severe cases, it can lead to serious lung complications.
RSV is one of the most common viruses to cause lung and airway infections in infants and small children.
Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that each year in the United States,
The CDC also mentions that the virus is seasonal and is most commonly seen from September to May.
Depending on your age, the severity of your RSV infection and the symptoms you experience can vary.
Symptoms typically appear within
Common symptoms of an RSV infection for both adults and children include:
- runny nose
Less common symptoms include:
- difficult, short, or fast breathing
- bluish skin (note that this may not be visible on darker skin tones)
Usually, these are only seen with more severe infections, such as bronchiolitis or pneumonia.
RSV symptoms in infants
Very young infants with RSV may seem irritable, be tired, and have some congestion. These symptoms should clear up on their own after a few days.
If the disease persists, infants may develop fast breathing. This type of breathing can be identified by their chest “caving in” around their ribs with every inhale and their nostrils flaring out.
Their mouth, lips, and fingernails may also have a bluish tinge to them due to a lack of oxygen. The tinge may not be visible on infants with darker skin tones.
This type of fast breathing, especially when accompanied by bluish coloring, is a serious medical emergency. If you believe your baby has these symptoms, call 911 or local emergency services as soon as you can.
RSV vs. coronavirus disease 2019
RSV and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are both respiratory viruses, so many of their symptoms overlap. While both COVID-19 and RSV can cause a runny nose, fever, and cough, there are a few subtle differences:
- RSV doesn’t cause a loss of taste or smell. If you or your child has developed this symptom along with a runny nose, fever, cough, or fatigue, they might have COVID-19.
- Very young kids and babies with RSV typically have a slow onset of cold-like symptoms and then a quick escalation.
Because the symptoms of both RSV and COVID-19 are so similar, it’s always a good idea to talk with a doctor or healthcare professional as soon as you notice symptoms in yourself or your child or get tested for COVID-19 as soon as you can.
RSV is a viral infection that can be passed via close contact with someone who has it. If you’re standing next to someone with RSV and they cough or sneeze, there’s a chance you might get the virus.
It’s also possible to get the virus by touching something, such as a toy or a doorknob, that was touched recently by someone who has the virus.
Some individuals are at a higher risk of developing a serious RSV infection. These individuals include:
- premature babies
- people with weakened immune systems
- children with heart or lung diseases
- people living in crowded areas
- children attending day care
- adults older than 65 years of age
In addition to having an increased risk of more serious infections, children with more severe cases of RSV may develop ear infections and croup, which is an inflammation and swelling of their vocal cords. This causes a loud, barking sound when they cough.
Children who develop bronchiolitis as a result of RSV may have a higher risk of developing asthma, though the cause isn’t clear.
Most children with RSV have few, if any, complications. The infection runs its course in 1 or 2 weeks.
In very severe cases of RSV, an individual may need to be hospitalized and may require extra oxygen, either through nasal cannula tubing attached to their nose or a tube inserted into their throat and connected to a ventilator.
Testing for RSV is often not needed. If it’s required, there are several types of laboratory tests used for a diagnosis.
The test that is most commonly used is the rapid diagnostic test. This test looks for RSV antigens in your mucus. A doctor can take a nasal swab and send it for testing. The results are usually available in less than an hour.
If a rapid test is negative, a doctor may order a virus culture of your mucus.
For more serious suspected cases, a medical professional might perform a blood test, chest X-ray, or CT scan to check for lung complications.
Since RSV is a virus, it can’t be treated with medications such as antibiotics. In most people, especially in older children, their RSV symptoms are similar to those of the cold or flu. In many of these people, their RSV infection will resolve without treatment.
Getting sufficient rest and drinking plenty of fluids can help children recover. Over-the-counter fever reducers and pain relievers can also help. It’s important to pay attention to the recommended dosage.
Regular suctioning of mucus from their nose with a rubber bulb can relieve congestion in babies and toddlers. Saline drops can also loosen mucus and help with the suction process.
Very young infants may need to be hospitalized if they require breathing support.
Vaccines are being developed to prevent severe cases of RSV. A number of them are undergoing clinical trials under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Fast Track designation. These vaccines are expected to get approvals by mid-2023.
There’s no cure for RSV, but there are ways to reduce your risk of getting and spreading the virus. RSV is spread, like other viruses, through microscopic droplets released into the air or on surfaces.
You can minimize your risk of contracting the virus by:
- washing your hands frequently
- covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
- not sharing utensils or drinking cups
Palivizumab (Synagis) is an antibody targeted specifically at the virus causing an RSV infection. It can be used in some high-risk infants who are younger than 24 months old to prevent them from developing an infection.
This drug is administered monthly as a shot during the RSV season. It can help prevent a severe infection, but it can’t cure or treat an illness that has already developed.
Currently, a number of RSV vaccines are undergoing clinical trials under the FDA Fast Track designation, with a few for use in infants, young children, and pregnant people. Some may get FDA approval as early as May 2023.
RSV is a common virus that tends to pop up during the fall and winter months. Anyone at any age can get RSV, but it’s more common in young children and babies.
In most people, the symptoms of RSV are mild and usually clear up on their own after a week or so.
Because the symptoms of RSV often overlap with the symptoms of both the flu and COVID-19, it’s important to talk with a doctor as soon as you notice symptoms in yourself or your child.