Paranoia is a thought process that causes you to have an irrational suspicion or mistrust of others. People with paranoia may feel like they’re being persecuted or that someone is out to get them. They may feel the threat of physical harm even if they aren’t in danger.
Everyone experiences paranoid thoughts at some point in their life, but paranoia is the constant experience of symptoms and unfounded feelings of paranoia. The symptoms of paranoia vary in severity and can interfere with all areas of life. Symptoms include:
- constant stress or anxiety related to beliefs they have about others
- mistrust of others
- feeling disbelieved or misunderstood
- feeling victimized or persecuted when there isn’t a threat
Mistrust of others and constant anxiety can make relationships and interactions with others difficult, causing problems with employment and personal relationships.
People with paranoia may feel that others are plotting against them or trying to cause them physical or emotional harm, and maybe even stealing from them. They may be unable to work with others and can be hostile or detached, leading to isolation.
Paranoid schizophrenia is a form of mental illness. People with schizophrenia tend to be distrustful of others and may be suspicious and guarded. They may also have delusions or believe that others are trying to hurt them. A person with schizophrenia may also experience hallucinations.
Paranoid behavior usually occurs due to personality disorders or other mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.
It’s not fully understood why some people develop personality disorders or mental illness. It may be a combination of factors, including:
- brain chemistry
Drug use can also cause paranoia. The use of methamphetamines can cause paranoid behavior and delusions. Other drugs that can lead to paranoid thought processes include PCP and LSD.
Your doctor will perform a medical exam and take a complete medical history to help them rule out a physical or medical reason for your symptoms, such as dementia.
If your paranoia is part of a psychiatric issue, your doctor will refer you to a psychiatrist or a psychologist who will perform an evaluation and psychological tests to help them determine your mental status.
Other conditions that can occur in people with paranoia are:
Treatment depends on the cause and severity of symptoms and may include medication and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy aims to help people with paranoia:
- accept their vulnerability
- increase their self-esteem
- develop trust in others
- learn to express and handle emotions in a positive manner
Treatment for paranoid personality disorder usually involves psychotherapy to help you develop coping skills to improve socialization and communication. Sometimes, doctors prescribe anti-anxiety medication to treat paranoid personality disorder for people who are often anxious or fearful. Atypical antipsychotic medications may also help.
People with paranoid schizophrenia usually require medication, as they often have lost touch with reality. Initial treatment usually includes antipsychotic medication. Your doctor may also prescribe anti-anxiety medications and antidepressants.
Your doctor may recommend additional treatment once your condition has stabilized. This can include psychotherapy and individual or family counseling.
When paranoia is a result of drug abuse, treatment is often supportive until the drug effects wear off. After that, your doctor will likely encourage you to participate in a drug treatment program.
Read our review of the best online therapy options to find the right fit for you.
For people who seek treatment and follow through with it, the outlook for paranoia is usually positive. However, treatment may be a slow process. Therapy and medication are effective in treating it. People with paranoia are usually distrustful of others and perceive paranoid thoughts as real. This makes the process of seeking treatment difficult.
If someone you know is showing symptoms of paranoia, they may not think they need medical attention. However, you should encourage them to see a doctor for a diagnosis.