The prostate is a small, muscular gland in the male reproductive system. Your prostate surrounds your urethra and makes most of the fluid in your semen. The muscular action of the prostate helps propel the fluid and semen through your penis during sexual climax. In many men, the prostate can become enlarged. Sometimes it leads to symptoms and, over time, other complications. However, there are treatments.

Enlargement of the prostate is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It occurs when the cells of the prostate gland begin to multiply. These additional cells cause your prostate gland to swell, which squeezes the urethra and limits the flow of urine. BPH is not the same as prostate cancer and doesn’t increase the risk of cancer. However, it can cause symptoms that can affect your quality of life. BPH is common in men older than 50 years. Learn more about BPH symptoms.

BPH is considered a normal condition of male aging, and many men older than 80 years have BPH symptoms. Although the exact cause is unknown, changes in male sex hormones that come with aging may be a factor. Any family history of prostate problems or any abnormalities with your testicles may raise your risk of BPH. Men who’ve had their testicles removed at a young age don’t develop BPH.

The symptoms of BPH are often very mild at first, but they become more serious if they aren’t treated. Common symptoms include:

  • incomplete bladder emptying
  • nocturia, which is the need to urinate two or more times per night
  • dribbling at the end of your urinary stream
  • incontinence, or leakage of urine
  • the need to strain when urinating
  • a weak urinary stream
  • a sudden urge to urinate
  • a slowed or delayed urinary stream
  • painful urination
  • blood in the urine

Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms. They are treatable, and often treating them can help prevent complications. Learn more about BPH symptoms.

When checking you for BPH, your doctor will usually begin by doing a physical exam and asking you about your medical history. The physical exam includes a rectal examination that allows the doctor to estimate the size and shape of your prostate. Other tests can include:

  • Urinalysis: Your urine is checked for blood and bacteria.
  • Prostatic biopsy: A small amount of prostate tissue is removed and examined for abnormalities.
  • Urodynamic test: Your bladder is filled with liquid via a catheter to measure the pressure of your bladder during urination.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: This blood test checks for cancer of the prostate.
  • Post-void residual: This tests the amount of urine left in your bladder after urination.
  • Cystoscopy: This is the examination of your urethra and bladder with a tiny lighted scope that is inserted into your urethra
  • Intravenous pyelography or urography: This is an X-ray exam or CT scan that is done after a dye is injected into your body. The dye highlights your entire urinary system on the images produced by the X-ray or CT.

Your doctor may also ask about medications you’re taking that might be affecting your urinary system, such as:

  • antidepressants
  • diuretics
  • antihistamines
  • sedatives

Your doctor can make any necessary medication adjustments. Don’t attempt to adjust your medications or doses yourself. Let your doctor know if you’ve taken self-care measures for your symptoms for at least two months without noticing any improvement.

Treatment of BPH can begin with self-care. If symptoms don’t subside through self-care, medication or surgery may be recommended. Your age and general health will also influence the prescribed treatment. Learn more about BPH treatment.

Natural treatment can include specific actions or lifestyle changes that you can make to help relieve your symptoms of BPH. These include:

  • urinating as soon as you feel the urge
  • going to the bathroom to urinate, even when you don’t feel the urge
  • avoiding over-the-counter decongestants or antihistamine medications, which can make it harder for the bladder to empty
  • avoiding alcohol and caffeine, especially in the hours after dinner
  • reducing your stress level, as nervousness can increase the frequency of urination
  • exercising regularly, as a lack of exercise can aggravate your symptoms
  • learning and practicing Kegel exercises to strengthen your pelvic muscles
  • keeping warm, since being cold can make symptoms worse

Some people also include natural remedies in their natural treatment of BPH. However, there isn’t evidence that they are effective. Learn more about BPH natural remedies.

When lifestyle changes aren’t enough to relieve your symptoms, your doctor may recommend medication. There are several medications that can help to both treat the symptoms of BPH and BPH itself. These medications include alpha-1 blockers, hormone reduction medications, and antibiotics. Learn more about BPH medications.

Alpha-1 blockers

Alpha-1 blockers are medications that relax the muscles of the bladder and prostate. Alpha-1 blockers relax the neck of the bladder and make it easier for urine to flow. Examples of alpha-1 blockers include:

  • doxazosin
  • prazosin
  • alfuzosin
  • terazosin
  • tamsulosin

Hormone reduction medications

Medications that reduce the levels of hormones produced by the prostate gland such as dutasteride and finasteride are commonly prescribed. These are two medications that lower the levels of testosterone. Sometimes, lowering the hormone levels will make the prostate get smaller and improve urine flow. However, these medications may also lead to undesired side effects such as impotence and a decreased sex drive.


Antibiotics may be used if your prostate becomes chronically inflamed from bacterial prostatitis related to BPH. Treating bacterial prostatitis with antibiotics may improve your symptoms of BPH by reducing the inflammation. However, antibiotics won’t help prostatitis or inflammation that is not caused by bacteria.

There are different types of surgical procedures that can help treat BPH when medications are not effective. Some procedures are either not invasive or minimally invasive and can often be done in your doctor’s office or clinic (outpatient procedures). Others are more invasive and need to be done in a hospital (inpatient procedures). Learn more about BPH surgery options.

Outpatient procedures

Outpatient procedures involve inserting an instrument into your urethra and into the prostate gland. They include:

  • Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA): Radio waves are used to scar and shrink prostate tissue.
  • Transurethral microwave therapy (TUMT): Microwave energy is used to eliminate prostate tissue.
  • Water-induced thermotherapy (WIT): Heated water is used to destroy excess prostate tissue.
  • High-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU): Sonic energy is used to eliminate excess prostate tissue.

Inpatient procedures

Inpatient procedures might be recommended if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • kidney failure
  • bladder stones
  • recurrent urinary tract infections
  • incontinence
  • a complete inability to empty the bladder
  • recurrent episodes of blood in the urine

Inpatient procedures include:

  • Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): It is the most commonly used surgical treatment for BPH. Your doctor inserts a small instrument through your urethra into the prostate. The prostate is then removed piece by piece.
  • Simple prostatectomy: Your doctor makes an incision in your abdomen or perineum, which is the area behind your scrotum. The inner part of your prostate is removed, leaving the outer part. After this procedure, you may have to stay in the hospital for up to 10 days.
  • Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP): This is similar to TURP, but your prostate isn’t removed. Instead, a small incision is made in your prostate that will enlarge your bladder outlet and urethra. The incision allows urine to flow more freely. You aren’t always required to stay in a hospital with this procedure.

Many men ignore their symptoms of BPH. However, early treatment can help you avoid potentially dangerous complications. Call your doctor if you’re noticing symptoms of BPH. Men who have a long-standing history of BPH may develop the following complications:

  • urinary tract infections
  • urinary stones
  • kidney damage
  • bleeding in the urinary tract
  • a sudden inability to urinate

Sometimes urinary obstruction from BPH is so severe that no urine can leave the bladder at all. This is called bladder outlet obstruction. It can be dangerous because urine trapped in the bladder can cause urinary tract infections and damage your kidneys.

BPH and prostate cancer can share many symptoms. Prostate cancer is a more serious condition than BPH. In most cases, prostate cancer needs to be treated. That’s why it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of BPH. Your doctor can test to make sure that your symptoms aren’t related to prostate cancer. Learn more about the similarities and differences of BPH and prostate cancer.

BPH doesn’t always require medical treatment. Sometimes, your doctor will want you to have regular checkups to monitor your symptoms and the size of your prostate.

Lifestyle changes, medication, and surgery are all treatment options for symptoms that are affecting your quality of life. Your doctor will work with you to develop a treatment plan that helps you manage your symptoms and live a healthy life. That’s why it’s important to discuss your symptoms of BPH with your doctor, no matter how minor you feel they may be.