No set of testicles is exactly the same size as another.

On average, a single testicle is an average length of about 4.5 to 5.1 centimeters (about 1.8 to 2 inches). Overall, the typical testicle measures about 4 x 3 x 2 centimeters (about 1.6 x 1.2 x 0.8 inches). One may even be bigger than the other, and this is completely normal.

Testicles aren’t considered small unless they’re under 3.5 centimeters (about 1.4 inches).

Even if you do have small testicles, it makes little difference in fertility. And more importantly, there’s no medically proven method to increase your testicle size.

Testicles do expand temporarily during sex, when blood is flowing to your genitals. But once you’ve climaxed, they return to normal size.

Many supposedly successful methods for increasing the size of your testicles are only hearsay. They can cause much more harm than good. So let’s look at some misguided methods to avoid and what to do instead if you’re concerned about fertility.

The bottom line: No exercises will make your balls bigger.

Many of these exercises are also dangerous. Here are some commonly touted “bigger balls” exercises that might harm you:

  • Scrotum manipulation. Many exercises tell you to tug on your scrotum skin (the sack that holds your testicles). Pulling too hard on your scrotum can damage skin, nerves, or blood vessels. This can result in intense pain, soreness, aching, and even bleeding inside the scrotum.
  • Rubbing, massaging, and squeezing. Pushing or squeezing the testicles can be uncomfortable and even painful if you do it too hard. Injury or damage to the testicles can also affect your sperm count, as sperm are produced in the testicular tissue.
  • Hanging weights on your scrotum. This is more commonly recommended for penis stretching, but some tips out there say that hanging light weights on your scrotum skin can help make your testicles look bigger. This has no effect on your actual testicle size and may cause scrotal tissue damage.
  • Injections. Injecting botulinum toxin (Botox) into your scrotum to make your testicles look bigger is an increasingly common practice. But because it’s a neurotoxin, injecting Botox can lead to long-term complications like blurred vision, difficulty swallowing or speaking, fatigue, and even an irregular heartbeat.
  • Surgery. Plastic surgery procedures to tighten scrotum skin or make the sack look bigger are also becoming more common. But as with any surgery, there’s a chance of complications like infection, injury, or tissue death (necrosis). Side effects from anesthesia can include dizziness, drowsiness, or vomiting.

It’s likely that you’ll come across no shortage of supplements that promise to help make your testicles bigger.

None of these supplements have any scientific or medical backing. And supplements aren’t regulated like regular foods or medications by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which ensures the safety and efficacy of nearly everything you put in your mouth with strict guidelines.

Supplement regulation is covered under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA). This law states that supplement manufacturers can make any claims or put any ingredients they want in their supplements as long as they’re not misleading, false, or harmful.

But without FDA oversight, you have to trust the manufacturer that they’re not lying about the use of their supplements or what’s in them.

Every medication you take has gone through this process. Supplements have not. There’s no definitive way to know if they work, and there’s always a risk you’ll be allergic to an ingredient or get food poisoning from an unlisted substance.

Some animal-based studies suggest that certain foods, such as and foods , may improve testicular health. But no foods have been directly linked to increasing testicle size.

There’s a possibility that with trying to increase the size of your testicles, what you really want is to improve fertility. Here are some tips to help improve fertility instead:

  • Stay fit. Regular exercise does wonders for the body. This includes .
  • Eat well. A diet rich in antioxidants and vitamin C helps reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can . Try eating nuts or citrus fruits.
  • Lower stress. Stress releases cortisol in your body, which can . Try relaxation methods like meditation, enjoying a hobby you love, or listening to some music to lower your stress levels.
  • Avoid briefs. Your testicles hang for a reason: They need to stay cool or sperm production is reduced. Wear loose-fitting underwear and pants to keep your testicles at an optimal temperature.
  • Spend time outside. Sunlight exposes you to high amounts of vitamin D, which can help . Try spending at least 15 minutes a day in the sun or consider taking vitamin D supplements.

If you’ve tried to conceive for an extended period but still haven’t been successful, consider adopting (or even fostering) a child. Many children all over the world need homes, and welcoming one of these kids into a supportive, loving home can make them happier, healthier, and more successful in their own lives.

See a doctor if you’re concerned that you have a condition, such as hypogonadism, that’s causing your balls to be abnormally small.

You should avoid any exercises or supplements meant to make your balls big. You might end up hurting yourself and increasing your risk of infertility by injuring tissues or blood supply to your scrotum and testicles.

Instead, if you’re trying to improve fertility, make some lifestyle or dietary adjustments to increase your chances of conceiving. These changes will also improve your overall health.