B-cell lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, which is cancer that affects immune system cells. Depending on the type, B-cell lymphoma can be slow or fast-growing and affect different body parts.
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that begins in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are cells in the immune system. Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are the two main kinds of lymphoma.
T-cell lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma are two types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. There’s also a rare type called NK-cell lymphoma.
Among people with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, about
Treatment for B-cell lymphomas is based on the specific subtype and stage of disease.
There are many subtypes of B-cell lymphoma, both slow-growing (indolent) and fast-growing (aggressive), including:
|Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)||This is the most common type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It’s an aggressive but treatable cancer that can involve lymph nodes and other organs.|
|Follicular lymphoma||This is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It’s typically slow-growing and usually starts in the lymph nodes.|
|Mantle cell lymphoma||Generally, it involves lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, and the gastrointestinal system. It is usually slow-growing, but it’s hard to treat.|
|Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/Small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL)||This type is indolent and typically affects the blood and bone marrow (CLL), or lymph nodes and spleen (SLL).|
|Primary central nervous system lymphoma||This type usually starts in the brain or spinal cord. It’s associated with immune problems caused by AIDS or anti-rejection medications used following organ transplantation.|
|Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma||This is a rare, slow-growing type that begins in the spleen, blood, and bone marrow.|
|Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MALT)||This type usually involves the stomach. It can also occur in the lungs, skin, thyroid, salivary gland, or eye.|
|Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma||This is a rare, slow-growing type found mainly in the lymph nodes.|
|Burkitt lymphoma||This is a fast-growing type that is more common in children.|
|Hairy cell leukemia||This is a slow-growing type that affects the spleen, lymph nodes, and blood.|
|Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia)||This is a rare, slow-growing lymphoma of the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.|
|Primary effusion lymphoma||This is a rare, aggressive type that begins in the eyeball and tends to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, possibly due to AIDS or anti-rejection medication following organ or tissue transplants.|
Cancer is staged according to how far it has spread from the original site. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is staged from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most advanced.
Symptoms vary according to the type of B-cell lymphoma and how advanced it is. These are some of the main symptoms:
- swollen lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, or groin
- abdominal pain or swelling
- chest pain
- breathing difficulties
- fever and night sweats
- unexplained weight loss
Certain types of lymphoma that are asymptomatic and indolent don’t necessarily require treatment. Your doctor may recommend what is known as “watchful waiting.” That means you’ll follow up every few months to make sure the cancer isn’t advancing. In some cases, this can continue for years.
Treatment can start when symptoms appear or if there are signs of disease progression. B-cell lymphoma often involves a combination of treatments that may change over time.
Using high powered energy beams, radiation therapy is used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It requires lying very still on a table while the beams are directed to a precise point on your body.
For slow-growing, localized lymphoma, radiation therapy may be all you need.
Side effects can include fatigue and skin irritation.
Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment that can be given orally or intravenously. Some aggressive B-cell lymphomas can be cured with chemotherapy, especially in early stage diseases.
DLBCL is a fast-growing type that can be treated with a chemotherapy regimen called CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). When given along with the monoclonal antibody rituximab (Rituxan), it’s called R-CHOP. It’s usually given in cycles several weeks apart. It’s hard on the heart, so it’s not an option if you have preexisting heart problems.
Side effects of chemotherapy may include nausea, fatigue, and hair loss.
Biologic drugs help your immune system fight cancer. Rituximab targets proteins on the surface of B-cells, making it easier for the immune system to identify and destroy them. By decreasing the number of cancerous and healthy B-cells, the drug prompts your body to produce new healthy B-cells. This makes it less likely that cancer will recur.
Radioimmunotherapy medications, such as ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), are made of monoclonal antibodies that carry radioactive isotopes. The drug helps antibodies attach to the cancer cells for direct delivery of radiation.
Side effects of immune therapy can include low white blood cell counts, fatigue, and infections.
Stem cell transplant
A stem cell transplant involves replacing your bone marrow with marrow from a healthy donor. First, you’ll need high dose chemotherapy or radiation to suppress your immune system, destroy cancer cells, and make room for the new marrow. To be eligible, you must be healthy enough to withstand this treatment.
Side effects can include infections, anemia, and rejection of the new bone marrow.
Some B-cell lymphomas may be treated with targeted therapy. This is a type of medication treatment designed to specifically target changes in lymphoma cells that help them grow. They can sometimes work for a patient who has not received any benefit from standard chemotherapy.
Lymphomas weaken your immune system, making you more vulnerable to infections. Some treatments for lymphoma can cause complications, such as:
- heart, lung, kidney, and thyroid disease
- second cancers
B-cell lymphomas can grow and spread to distant organs.
Some types of B-cell lymphomas can be cured. Treatment can slow progression in others. If there’s no sign of cancer after your primary treatment, it means you’re in remission. You’ll still need to follow up for several years to monitor for recurrence.
Is B-cell lymphoma fatal?
Although survival depends on each type of B-cell lymphoma and an individual’s overall health status, survival rates have increased each decade as a result of treatment advances. Most people diagnosed with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are still alive 5 years after the disease has been found.
When the disease is caught at an earlier stage, the chances of survival are even higher.
What is the survival rate for B-cell lymphoma?
The overall 5-year relative survival rate for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is
This varies a lot according to the type of B-cell lymphoma and stage at diagnosis. Other considerations are your age and overall health.
Your doctor can provide you with your personal prognosis based on your complete health profile.
Is high grade B-cell lymphoma curable?
High grade, or fast-growing, types of B-cell lymphoma are most commonly DLBCL, Burkitt lymphoma, or peripheral T cell lymphoma, though there are other types.
Sometimes, low grade B-cell lymphoma can change into high grade over time. Some people may also have low grade lymphoma and high grade lymphoma in their body at the same time.
This type of disease is treatable. Treatment varies depending on the type of lymphoma and a person’s overall health.
Is B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder cancer?
B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are a type of disease where the lymphocytes, or white blood cells, are being produced at an uncontrollable rate.
These disorders include:
- B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia
- non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- hairy cell leukemia
- splenic lymphoma