Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is found in dark chocolate and green tea. While initial studies show positive effects on health, more research is needed. That said, there’s minimal risk to trying PQQ supplements.

PQQ has recently gained a lot of attention in the health and wellness sphere.

PQQ supplements are claimed to increase energy levels, mental focus, and longevity, but you may wonder whether there’s any merit to these claims.

This article explains everything you need to know about PQQ supplements, including the evidence behind their possible benefits.

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PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), also called methoxatin, is a vitamin-like compound that exists naturally in soil and a variety of foods, including spinach, kiwi, soybeans, and human breastmilk (1).

How it functions

PQQ’s exact function in humans remains somewhat undetermined, but it’s renowned for its potent antioxidant effects. It’s also thought to be involved in a variety of cellular processes, including protecting nerve cells against damage (2, 3).

What’s more, PQQ supports proper mitochondrial function and the cellular development of new mitochondria, though its exact mechanisms are still unclear (2).

Mitochondria are specialized structures inside your cells that are responsible for producing energy from the foods you eat.

What are PQQ supplements?

When taken as a supplement, PQQ is classified as a nootropic. Nootropics are substances used to enhance brain functions like memory, mental focus, motivation, and creativity (4).

PQQ supplements are manufactured via a unique bacterial fermentation process. The PQQ is harvested from certain bacteria that naturally produce this compound as a byproduct of their metabolism (5).

PQQ supplements are typically sold as capsules or soft gels, but they’re occasionally available as chewable tablets or lozenges.


PQQ is a natural compound found in a variety of foods. It acts as an antioxidant and supports healthy mitochondrial function. It’s taken as a supplement to promote brain function.

Although PQQ is essential for human health, there’s limited evidence that the supplemental form provides any meaningful health benefits.

That said, early research suggests that PQQ may help reduce inflammation and improve mitochondrial function.

May help lower inflammation

Early research indicates that PQQ has anti-inflammatory effects. In turn, these properties may reduce your risk of various inflammatory ailments.

One animal study found that mice given PQQ had significantly less inflammatory damage to brain tissue, compared with the control group (6).

In another study in obese mice treated with PQQ during pregnancy and lactation, their offspring exhibited significantly fewer inflammatory markers in liver tissue and were less likely to express inflammatory genes than the offspring of mice that didn’t get PQQ (7).

One small, 3-day study in 10 people evaluated the effects of taking a daily PQQ supplement on common markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and blood sugar and cholesterol levels (8).

CRP and IL-6 levels dropped significantly, but no meaningful changes in cholesterol or blood sugar occurred (8).

Although these results are promising, the data isn’t strong enough to suggest that PPQ treats or prevents inflammatory conditions. Thus, more research is needed.

May improve mitochondrial function

Recent research on PQQ largely focuses on its mitochondrial effects.

Mitochondria are responsible for producing the energy that your cells require to stay healthy and function optimally. Poor mitochondrial health is implicated in a variety of common conditions, including mental decline, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer (9).

Experts note that enhanced mitochondrial health may be behind many of the broad health claims associated with PQQ, such as improved memory, energy, and sleep.

Several test-tube and animal studies indicate that PQQ increases cellular mitochondria production via several complex pathways, but almost no evidence suggests a similar effect in humans — or which health benefits would be derived from it (2, 10, 11).

Still, a small, 8-week study in 17 people found that taking 20 mg of PQQ daily resulted in significant self-reported improvements in sleep quality and fatigue (12).

The study authors noted that these effects may have been due to PQQ’s influence on mitochondrial health, but insufficient data was collected to confirm that theory.

Due to a lack of evidence, more research is needed.


Test-tube and animal studies suggest that PQQ may favorably affect inflammation and mitochondrial health, but further research is necessary.

When considering things like dosage and adverse effects, bear in mind that PQQ hasn’t been rigorously tested in humans.


Due to a lack of robust data, no set PPQ dosage recommendation exists.

However, the available research suggests that results may be seen from doses as low as 5 mg per day (13).

Adverse effects

Likewise, its side effects aren’t fully known, as very few human studies have examined this substance. Yet, toxicology studies indicate that PQQ poses a risk of kidney damage when taken at very high doses (14).

As such, you shouldn’t take more than the amount recommended on the packaging.

It’s still unclear whether PQQ interacts negatively with any medications. Consult your healthcare provider prior to adding PQQ to your supplement regimen, especially if you’re taking any other medications or supplements.


No set dosage information for PQQ exists, and insufficient studies exist to fully examine its side effects. Excessive doses may increase your risk of kidney damage.

Currently, not enough strong evidence is available to warrant taking PQQ.

Eating plenty of PQQ-rich foods, such as spinach, parsley, carrots, oranges, tomatoes, bananas, dark chocolate, and green tea, is likely enough to get adequate amounts (1).

Still, PQQ supplements carry few risks. Consult your healthcare provider if you decide to take it, and be sure to choose a high quality product that’s tested for purity and potency by a third-party organization like NSF International or the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).


Currently, there isn’t enough evidence to justify supplementing with PQQ, and you can likely get plenty of it from your diet. However, the risks of trying it are relatively low.

PQQ is a compound that plays a vital role in human health.

It’s found in a variety of foods, including dark chocolate and green tea, and PQQ supplements are said to improve brain health, energy levels, and longevity. Yet, current research doesn’t support these benefits.

While test-tube and animal studies indicate that PQQ may reduce inflammation and promote mitochondrial health, more research is needed.

Although the lack of evidence suggests that there’s no need to supplement with PQQ, the risks of doing so are minimal if you’re interested in trying it.