Inflammation can be both good and bad.
On one hand, it helps your body defend itself from infection and injury. On the other hand, chronic inflammation can lead to weight gain and disease ().
Stress, inflammatory foods and low activity levels can make this risk even greater.
However, studies demonstrate that some foods can fight inflammation.
Here are 13 anti-inflammatory foods.
Berries are small fruits that are packed with fiber, vitamins and minerals.
Although there are dozens of varieties, some of the most common are:
Berries contain antioxidants called anthocyanins. These compounds have anti-inflammatory effects that may reduce your risk of disease (, , , , ).
Your body produces natural killer cells (NK cells), which help keep your immune system functioning properly.
In one study, men who consumed blueberries every day produced significantly more NK cells than men who did not ().
In another study, overweight men and women who ate strawberries had lower levels of certain inflammatory markers associated with heart disease ().
Summary Berries provide antioxidants known as anthocyanins. These compounds may reduce inflammation, boost immunity and reduce your risk of heart disease.
Fatty fish are a great source of protein and the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.
Although all types of fish contain some omega-3 fatty acids, these fatty fish are among the best sources:
EPA and DHA reduce inflammation that can lead to metabolic syndrome, heart disease, diabetes and kidney disease (, , , , , )
Your body metabolizes these fatty acids into compounds called resolvins and protectins, which have anti-inflammatory effects ().
In clinical studies, people consuming salmon or EPA and DHA supplements had decreases in the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) (, ).
However, in another study, people with an irregular heartbeat who took EPA and DHA daily experienced no difference in inflammatory markers compared to those who received a placebo ().
Summary Fatty fish hold high amounts of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have anti-inflammatory effects.
Broccoli is extremely nutritious.
It's a cruciferous vegetable, along with cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kale.
Research has shown that eating a lot of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer (, ).
This may be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of the antioxidants they contain.
Broccoli is rich in sulforaphane, an antioxidant that fights inflammation by reducing your levels of cytokines and NF-kB, which drive inflammation (, , ).
Summary Broccoli is one of the best sources of sulforaphane, an antioxidant with powerful anti-inflammatory effects.
Avocados may be one of the few supposed superfoods worthy of the title.
They're packed with potassium, magnesium, fiber and heart-healthy monounsaturated fats.
They also contain carotenoids and tocopherols, which are linked to reduced cancer risk (, , ).
In addition, one compound in avocados may reduce inflammation in young skin cells ().
In one study, when people consumed a slice of avocado with a hamburger, they had lower levels of the inflammatory markers NF-kB and IL-6 than participants who ate the hamburger alone ().
Summary Avocados offer various beneficial compounds that protect against inflammation and may reduce your cancer risk.
You've probably already heard that green tea is one of the healthiest beverages you can drink.
It reduces your risk of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, obesity and other conditions (, , , ).
Many of its benefits are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, especially a substance called epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).
EGCG inhibits inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and damage to the fatty acids in your cells (, ).
Summary Green tea's high EGCG content reduces inflammation and safeguards cells from damage that can lead to disease.
Bell peppers and chili peppers are loaded with vitamin C and antioxidants that have powerful anti-inflammatory effects (, , ).
Bell peppers provide the antioxidant quercetin, which may reduce one marker of oxidative damage in people with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease ().
Summary Chili peppers and bell peppers are rich in quercetin, sinapic acid, ferulic acid and other antioxidants with strong anti-inflammatory effects.
While thousands of varieties of mushrooms exist worldwide, only a few are edible and grown commercially.
These include truffles, portobello mushrooms and shiitake.
Mushrooms are very low in calories and rich in selenium, copper and all of the B vitamins.
They also contain phenols and other antioxidants that provide anti-inflammatory protection (, , , , ).
A special type of mushroom called lion's mane may potentially reduce the low-grade inflammation seen in obesity ().
However, one study found that cooking mushrooms lowered their anti-inflammatory compounds significantly — so it may be best to eat them raw or lightly cooked ().
Summary Some edible mushrooms boast compounds that may decrease inflammation. Eating them raw or lightly cooked may help you reap their full anti-inflammatory potential.
Grapes contain anthocyanins, which reduce inflammation.
In addition, they may decrease the risk of several diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease and eye disorders (, , , , ).
Grapes are also one of the best sources of resveratrol, another compound that has many health benefits.
In one study, people with heart disease who consumed grape extract daily experienced a decrease in inflammatory gene markers, including NF-kB ().
What’s more, their levels of adiponectin increased. Low levels are associated with weight gain and an increased risk of cancer ().
Summary Several plant compounds in grapes, including resveratrol, can reduce inflammation. They may also reduce your risk of several diseases.
Turmeric is a spice with a strong, earthy flavor that's often used in curries and other Indian dishes.
It has received a lot of attention for its content of the powerful anti-inflammatory nutrient curcumin.
Turmeric is effective at reducing the inflammation related to arthritis, diabetes and other diseases (, , , , , , ).
One gram of curcumin daily combined with piperine from black pepper caused a significant decrease in the inflammatory marker CRP in people with metabolic syndrome ().
However, it may be hard to get enough curcumin to have a noticeable effect from turmeric alone.
In one study, overweight women who took 2.8 grams of turmeric per day had no improvement in inflammatory markers ().
Taking supplements containing isolated curcumin is much more effective. Curcumin supplements are often combined with piperine, which can boost curcumin absorption by 2,000% ().
Summary Turmeric boasts a powerful anti-inflammatory compound called curcumin. Eating black pepper with turmeric can significantly enhance the absorption of curcumin.
Extra virgin olive oil is one of the healthiest fats you can eat.
It's rich in monounsaturated fats and a staple in the Mediterranean diet, which provides numerous health benefits.
Studies link extra virgin olive oil to a reduced risk of heart disease, brain cancer and other serious health conditions (, , , , , , ).
In one Mediterranean diet study, CRP and several other inflammatory markers significantly decreased in those who consumed 1.7 ounces (50 ml) of olive oil daily ().
The effect of oleocanthal, an antioxidant found in olive oil, has been compared to anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen ().
Keep in mind that anti-inflammatory benefits are much greater in extra virgin olive oil than in more refined olive oils ().
Summary Extra virgin olive oil provides powerful anti-inflammatory benefits, which may reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer and other serious health conditions.
Dark chocolate is delicious, rich and satisfying.
It's also packed with antioxidants that reduce inflammation. These may reduce your risk of disease and lead to healthier aging (, , , , , ).
Flavanols are responsible for chocolate's anti-inflammatory effects and keep the endothelial cells that line your arteries healthy (, ).
In one study, smokers experienced significant improvement in endothelial function two hours after eating high-flavonol chocolate ().
However, make sure to choose dark chocolate that contains at least 70% cocoa — more is even better — in order to reap the anti-inflammatory benefits.
Summary Flavanols in dark chocolate and cocoa can reduce inflammation. They may also reduce your risk of several diseases.
The tomato is a nutritional powerhouse.
Tomatoes are high in vitamin C, potassium and lycopene, an antioxidant with impressive anti-inflammatory properties (, , , ).
Lycopene may be particularly beneficial for reducing pro-inflammatory compounds related to several types of cancer (, ).
One study determined that drinking tomato juice significantly decreased inflammatory markers in overweight — but not obese — women ().
Note that cooking tomatoes in olive oil can maximize the amount of lycopene you absorb ().
That's because lycopene is a carotenoid, or a fat-soluble nutrient. Carotenoids are absorbed better with a source of fat.
Summary Tomatoes are an excellent source of lycopene, which may reduce inflammation and protect against cancer.
Cherries are delicious and rich in antioxidants, such as anthocyanins and catechins, which fight inflammation (, , , , ).
Although the health-promoting properties of tart cherries have been studied more than other varieties, sweet cherries also provide benefits.
In one study, when people consumed 280 grams of cherries per day for one month, their levels of the inflammatory marker CRP decreased — and stayed low for 28 days after they stopped eating cherries ().
Summary Sweet and tart cherries contain antioxidants that reduce inflammation and your risk of disease.
Even low levels of inflammation on a chronic basis can lead to disease.
Do your best to keep inflammation in check by choosing a wide variety of delicious, antioxidant-rich foods.
Peppers, dark chocolate, fish and extra virgin olive oil are just a few foods that can help you combat inflammation and reduce your risk of illness.