The tibial nerve branches off from the sciatic nerve. It provides innervation to the muscles of the lower leg and foot. The tibial nerve generally follows the course of the tibial artery through the body, which supplies blood to the same areas.

There are two major branches of the tibial nerve in the foot: the medial plantar nerve and the lateral plantar nerve. The former supplies instructions to the big toe and the two toes next to it, and the latter the other two toes. The split is seen just after the heel. The sural nerve also branches off the tibial nerve and provides sensation in the skin of the legs and feet.

Damage to the tibial nerve results in a condition known as tibial nerve dysfunction. This is characterized by a loss of feeling or movement in the lower leg. While this may be caused by a variety of conditions, including systemic diseases such as diabetes, it is more common among those who have fractured their tibia, or shinbone.