The tibial collateral ligament is also called the superficial medial collateral ligament. It is about eight to ten centimeters long and stretches from femur’s medial epicondyle (a bony protrusion at the bottom, inner-side of the bone) to the two attachments on the tibia bone. It is a flat, band-like object located on the knee’s medial (middle) aspect. This strong band is located under the insertion points of the gracillis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles. The ligament reinforces the knee’s articular capsule’s medial surface.
This ligament is attached to the medial meniscus. This has clinical relevance because if the knee suffers an excessive abduction, which is a clipping-type injury, both the medial meniscus and the tibial collateral ligament will tear. As one of the four major ligaments in the knee, such an injury can take numerous months to heal. Damage to the ligament is very painful can occur due to high impact, bending, or landing on a slightly bent knee. A grade one injury may take two to ten weeks to heal, while a grade two or three injury could take several months. Skiing and football are the most common sources for injuries to this ligament.