The splenic artery is, along with the gastric and common hepatic arteries, one of the three main branches of the celiac artery. The celiac artery branches from the abdominal aorta, the largest artery in the abdomen.

The splenic artery is responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the spleen, but also has several branches that deliver blood to the stomach and pancreas. The branches of the splenic artery are the short gastric, the left gastroepiploic, the posterior gastric, and the branches to the pancreas.

The short gastric arteries consist of five to seven small branches that run along the greater curvature of the stomach.

The left gastroepiploic artery is the largest branch of the splenic artery and runs toward the interior of the stomach through the greater omentum, a large membrane that hangs down from the stomach.

The branches to the pancreas consist of numerous, small, blood vessels that run behind the upper border of the pancreas, supplying it with blood.