The posterior pericallosal branch of the posterior cerebral artery is one of the arteries serving the brain.
In some individuals it may be absent, having combined with the anterior pericallosal branch via the process of anastomosis, a bridging of blood vessels. It sometimes presents as a series of small arteries instead of one artery.
It can have as many as three sources: the posterior cerebral artery, the lateral choroidal artery, or the posterior temporal artery.
The corpus callosum, a ten-centimeter-long structure that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain with a dense fiber bridge, receives some of its blood supply from the pericallosal branches of the posterior and anterior cerebral arteries.
Five to ten percent of ischemic strokes in the United States occur within the posterior cerebral artery. Death from this type of stroke is not common, but permanent visual impairment may occur. The most common cause of stroke resulting from occlusion (blockage) of the pericallosal arteries is artherosclerotic plaques, which are deposits of calcium, cholesterol, fat, and other substances found in the blood that can restrict blood flow.
Strokes resulting from the occlusion of the posterior pericallosal branch of the posterior cerebral artery are sometimes misdiagnosed as a middle cerebral artery infarct (stroke).