The medial collateral artery is also known as the middle collateral artery. It is located in the elbow. It branches off the deep brachial artery, near the upper elbow. The artery then feeds into the interosseous recurrent artery near the lower elbow. It supplies blood to a portion of the elbow called the lateral arm flap. It also supplies oxygen-rich blood to the muscles in the elbow. Some people are born without certain arm arteries. These may include the middle collateral artery, profunda brachii artery, and radial collateral artery. For people who lack these arteries, there are not usually any serious health consequences. Their other arteries in this area tend to be normal and compensate for the absent blood vessels. However, absence of the middle collateral artery does affect those who must have surgery on the elbow. Without the middle collateral artery, there isn’t a suitable course of blood flow to the lateral arm flap. This is because the other artery that supplies the lateral arm flap must usually be cauterized during the procedure.