The medial tarsal artery is actually a set of two to three arteries that are located on the medial, or outer, side of the foot.

The arteria dorsalis pedis runs down the top of the foot and passes through the ankle joint, then branches off into two separate arteries, the first dorsal metatarsal and the deep plantar. Branching off the deep plantar artery are four different arteries, including the medial tarsal artery. The other branches of the deep plantar artery are the lateral tarsal artery, arcuate artery, and first dorsal metatarsal artery.

The medial tarsal artery supplies blood to the medial (or central) side of the foot, the tarsal bones, and joints of the foot. The tarsal bones are a set of seven irregularly-shaped bones located in the hind-foot, which is the heel area of the foot.

The medial tarsal artery begins on the medial side of the foot and then joins the medial malleolar network. This network is formed by branches of arteries from the anterior and posterior medial malleolar arteries, as well as from the medial tarsal arteries.