The medial superior genicular artery is a branch of the popliteal artery. It runs in front of two of the hamstring muscles, namely the semimembranosus and semitendinosus muscles. It runs underneath the tendon of a third hamstring muscle, the adductor magnus.

It and its branches supply the teardrop muscle (vastus medialis), the femur, and the knee-joint with oxygenated blood. The artery and its branches merge (anastomosis) with the lateral superior genicular artery, the medial inferior genicular artery, and the highest genicular artery.

One potential complication of knee replacement surgery is a pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery. A pseudoaneurysm occurs when the artery becomes dilated or enlarged as the result of injury, causing blood to leak outside of the arterial wall. Treatment for this condition may include surgery, medication, or simply applying prolonged pressure to the site of the pseudoaneurysm.