The medial femoral circumflex artery branches off from the deep femoral artery and supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles of the middle of the thigh and hip joint.

The blood comes from the heart down through the aorta into the common iliac artery, which branches off into the internal and external iliac arteries. The external iliac artery branches into several arteries, one of which is the femoral artery in the front part of the thigh. From there, the medial femoral circumflex artery branches centrally around the shaft of the femur. The femur is the longest and largest bone in the body, extending from the hip to the knee. The artery winds around the bone and sits behind the femoral neck.

In some cases, parts of the medial femoral circumflex artery can be used for coronary artery bypass grafts. Due to its location, this artery is also at risk for damage during hip replacement surgeries.