The left colic artery is the first branch of the inferior mesenteric artery and supplies blood to the descending colon and transverse colon, both of which are parts of the large intestine.

This artery travels to the left side of the abdomen and branches into ascending and descending parts.

The ascending branch passes in front of the left kidney, enters the transverse mesocolon (a fold of tissue that connects the transverse colon to the abdominal wall), and connects with the middle colic artery. It supplies blood to the upper part of the descending colon and part of the transverse colon.

The descending branch enters the pelvic mesocolon (a fold of tissue that attaches the sigmoid colon to the abdominal wall) and connects with the ascending branch of the sigmoid artery. It supplies blood to the lower part of the descending colon.