Supplying the lower portion of the bladder, the inferior vesical artery is located in the pelvis. It is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery. Blood from this artery is delivered to the fundus (base) of the bladder.

In males, both the prostate and seminal vesicles are supplied with blood by the inferior vesical artery. It is comparable to the vaginal artery in females. The two are considered to be homologous, which means that they have the same basic structure and are likely closely related in terms of how they evolved. According to some research articles and medical texts, the inferior vesical artery is found in both males and females, making the inferior vesical artery an artery that branches off the vaginal artery in women.

This artery may have a common trunk with the superior gluteal and internal pudendal, or can branch off from the internal pudendal. This varies from person to person, and usually occurs as only one additional branch.

The inferior vesical artery also supplies the ductus deferens, which is a section of the passage through which sperm travel in the male reproductive system.