The descending branch of the left colic artery is one of the blood vessels responsible for supplying blood, oxygen, and other nutrients to the lower part of the abdominal area or trunk. Its main origin is the abdominal aorta, which divides into several branches, one of which is the inferior mesenteric artery. Then, at the lower part of the colon, this blood vessel branches again into the left colic artery, sigmoid artery, and superior hemorrhoidal.
The left colic artery crosses in front of the psoas major muscle near the bottom part of the abdomen before dividing into two parts: the descending branch and the ascending branch. The descending branch of the left colic artery then travels to the highest sigmoid artery and connects with it in multiple places, forming arches. Branches originating from these arches supply oxygen and other nutrients to the descending colon and (in many people) the left side of the transverse colon, both of which are parts of the large intestine.