The deep femoral artery is a branch of the common femoral artery of the human body. The common femoral artery is one of the largest arteries in the human body, with multiple branches. The deep femoral artery is a major blood vessel supplying the leg.

The deep femoral artery supplies the thigh with blood. As an artery, it carries oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood to the muscles of the thigh and upper leg in general; a vein will remove deoxygenated (oxygen-depleted) blood from the thigh. The deep femoral artery branches off from the common femoral artery at a point known as the femoral triangle. After leaving the femoral triangle, the deep femoral artery develops further branches to supply blood to the back of the thigh.

Two such branches are the medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries. Both of these branches, as well as the deep femoral artery itself, are important suppliers of blood to the entire thigh and associated bones. The medial circumflex is also particularly important as it supplies the femur with blood.