The circumflex fibular artery is usually found at the upper end of the rear tibial artery in the lower leg. The tibial artery is one of two arteries that branch off from the popliteal artery, which carries blood through the femoral artery from the heart and to the legs and feet.

The circumflex fibular artery enters the fibular head of the soleus muscle and winds around the neck of the fibula. The fibula, also known as the calf bone, is the smaller of the two bones below the knee. It is the slenderest bone in the body in proportion to its length. The soleus muscle is a broad, flat muscle originating in the calf of the leg that attaches to tendons to form part of the Achilles tendon and acts to flex the foot.

The circumflex fibular artery supplies blood along any of three peroneal muscles of the lower leg. The peroneal muscles work to assist the ability of the foot to flex in multiple directions and angles.