The first major branch of the abdominal aorta, the celiac trunk is responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the stomach, spleen, liver, esophagus, and also parts of the pancreas and duodenum. Along with the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, it is one of three frontal branches of the abdominal aorta, the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.

Although the celiac trunk is only one of three arteries that branches off the abdominal aorta, it is essential to many major organs. Each of the branches of the abdominal aorta services separate areas. Therefore, without the celiac trunk, the organs it supplies would not receive enough blood, making them unable to function properly.

There are three main divisions of the celiac trunk: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery. The left gastric artery runs along the smaller curve of the stomach and connects to the lower esophagus, while the common hepatic artery supplies blood to the liver, duodenum, pancreas, and part of the stomach. The splenic artery supplies blood to the spleen, which supports the immune system by producing antibodies.