The appendicular artery is an end artery that does not join with another, and it has no named branches of its own. Its origin is unclear; however, it is generally accepted that the appendicular artery begins in the ileocolic artery, which also gives rise to the colic, cecal, and ileal arteries.

The appendicular artery travels behind the terminal ileum (the tip of the final third of the small intestine) before entering the border of the mesentery of the appendix, which is also referred to as the mesoappendix. It then travels beside the appendix to its tip, supplying the appendix with fresh blood.

During surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy), the appendicular artery is tied off (or ligated), along with the appendicular vein. If one of the branches from the artery becomes blocked, the result can be local tissue death (necrosis), perforation, abscess, or even peritonitis, a serious infection of the abdominal lining tissues.