The anterior tibial artery is one of the most critical arteries of the lower leg. It runs slightly above the interosseous membrane (fibrous tissue that stabilizes the bones and separates the muscles of the leg) and enters the front part of the leg (shin region), eventually going down to the lateral foot surface. The anterior tibial vein runs parallel to this artery throughout its course. It crosses the front part of the ankle joint, where the dorsalis pedis artery originates.
The key function of this artery is to supply blood to the muscles in the anterior (front) part of the leg. As this artery goes across the interosseous membrane, it branches off into the dorsalis pedis artery, which supplies blood to the dorsal (top-most) surface of the foot. This further branches out into tarsal, lateral, and medial branches, where the artery culminates by intersecting the deep plantar and arcuate arteries.