In the body there are two deep temporal arteries. These arteries are called the posterior and anterior deep temporal arteries. The anterior deep temporal artery and its partner are located between the pericranium (a membrane that covers the outer surface of the skull) and the temporal muscles, which fan out across each side of the head.

The two deep temporal arteries connect with the middle temporal artery, and together these supply muscles with blood. The anterior deep temporal artery has small branches that go through the zygomatic (cheek) bone, communicating with the lacrimal artery. This artery also runs through the great wing of the sphenoid, a bone at the base of the skull.

The anterior deep temporal artery is a branch of the maxillary artery. It may be separate from the other arteries, such as the posterior deep temporal artery, or combined, forming a trunk from the maxillary artery. The middle temporal artery will always be separate; however the anterior deep temporal artery and its posterior partner may combine with the blood supply of other arteries in the head.