The first step for managing prediabetes is understanding what a prediabetes diagnosis means. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as diet, exercise, and medication.
If you receive a prediabetes diagnosis, it means you have a higher-than-normal blood sugar level. But it’s not high enough to qualify as a diagnosis of diabetes.
According to a 2014 review, long-term data suggest that lifestyle changes may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as
Prediabetes can also lead to other health conditions, including heart disease and stroke.
But you can reverse prediabetes. Read on to learn more about this diagnosis and what you can do.
A doctor or healthcare professional may refer to prediabetes as the following:
- impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), which means you have higher-than-normal blood sugar after a meal
- impaired fasting glucose (IFG), which means you have higher-than-normal blood sugar in the morning before eating
- hemoglobin A1C level between
5.7% and 6.4%
Prediabetes has no clear symptoms. Some people may experience a condition called acanthosis nigricans, which is a sign of insulin resistance. It
This discoloration usually occurs around your:
If you’ve received a diagnosis of prediabetes, it’s important to talk with a doctor if you experience:
- increased thirst
- increased urination, especially at night
- blurry vision
- sores or cuts that won’t heal
These are symptoms typical of type 2 diabetes and may indicate that your prediabetes has progressed to type 2 diabetes. A doctor can order a series of tests to confirm this.
Your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin when you eat so that sugar from your blood moves into the cells of your body and serves as an energy source. That’s how insulin helps lower your blood sugar level.
The causes of prediabetes are similar to those of diabetes, though they’re at an earlier stage. They primarily consist of:
- Insulin resistance: Insulin resistance occurs when your cells
don’t respondproperly to insulin.
- Increased metabolic disturbance: Increased metabolic disturbance is a result of both worsening hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and insulin resistance.
If you have prediabetes, your fasting blood glucose levels will rise to
Prediabetes can occur in anyone, but certain factors can increase your chances of developing the condition.
- Age: People older than 45 years of age are at a higher risk of prediabetes, though
more children and adolescentsare being diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes than ever before.
- Body weight: If you have a body mass index (BMI) of more than 25, a doctor may want to screen for prediabetes.
- Waist size: Having more fat around your waist than your hips can increase your risk of prediabetes. You can measure this risk factor by checking if your waist is 40 in. or more if you’re a person assigned male at birth and 35 in. or more if you’re a person assigned female at birth.
- Race and ethnicity: Research has shown that prediabetes occurs at higher rates in people who are African American, Asian American, Hispanic, Alska Native, Pacific Islander, or Native American. Resource disparities, such as access to care, may likely factor into this higher prevalence, according to the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- Diet: Regular consumption of red meat, processed meat, alcohol, and sugar-sweetened beverages could increase your risk of developing prediabetes.
- Stress: Managing stress is important, not only for reducing diabetes risk but for protecting your heart.
- Physical inactivity: Not only can getting regular exercise help you keep up a moderate weight, but it can also lower your risk of prediabetes.
- Family history: If you have an immediate relative with type 2 diabetes, you may be at a higher risk of developing prediabetes.
- Tobacco use: In addition to increasing your risk of insulin resistance, smoking may also be
associated withan increase in waist size, which is another risk factor of prediabetes.
- Medical history: Certain conditions, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, sleep apnea, gestational diabetes, PCOS, high blood pressure, and increased cholesterol or triglyceride levels may be linked to a higher risk of insulin resistance and prediabetes.
According to the CDC, losing even just
Other factors, including high stress levels and smoking, can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
Making lifestyle changes is one of the most effective ways to keep up a moderate weight and prevent type 2 diabetes.
Here are a few tips to get started:
- Eat more fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and legumes.
- Limit your intake of sweets and sugary beverages, including soda, sweet tea, and sports drinks.
- Aim for at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week, or about 30 minutes daily for 5 days per week.
- If you smoke, consider quitting.
- Manage your stress levels with meditation, yoga, deep breathing, and other techniques to lower stress.
A doctor will need to order a blood test for an accurate diagnosis. This means drawing a blood sample to send to a lab.
Results can vary depending on the type of test. You should take the same test twice to confirm the diagnosis, according to the
Devices that measure your glucose levels, such as the finger-stick test, aren’t used for diagnosis. Instead, a doctor
Hemoglobin A1C test
The hemoglobin A1C test, which is also called the A1C test or glycosylated hemoglobin test, measures your average blood sugar level over the last 3 months. This test doesn’t require fasting and can be done any time.
An A1C value of 5.7% to 6.4% is diagnostic for prediabetes. A second A1C test is recommended to confirm the results. The higher the A1C, the higher the risk that your prediabetes will progress to type 2 diabetes.
Fasting plasma glucose test
During a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, a doctor will ask you to fast for 8 hours or overnight. Before you eat, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample for testing.
A blood sugar level of 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates prediabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test
An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) also requires fasting. A doctor will check your blood glucose levels twice, once at the beginning of the appointment and then 2 hours later after you drink a sugary drink.
If your blood sugar level reads 140 to 199 mg/dL after 2 hours, then the test indicates IGT, or prediabetes.
Treating prediabetes can also be thought of as preventing type 2 diabetes. If a doctor gives you a diagnosis of prediabetes, they’ll recommend certain lifestyle changes.
A study called the Diabetes Prevention Program showed an approximate
The most common ways to manage prediabetes are:
- keeping up a diet that’s rich in fiber and lean proteins
- limiting carbs and portion sizes at meals
- exercising regularly
- keeping up a moderate weight
- taking medication if a doctor prescribed it
Always check with a doctor before starting any CAM treatments because they may interact with your medication.
Low carbohydrate diet
Although most available research is focused on type 2 diabetes rather than prediabetes specifically, it may be fair to assume that a low carbohydrate diet could also be beneficial for those with prediabetes.
Low-carbohydrate diets generally restrict your carbohydrate intake to less than
Talk with a doctor before making major changes to your diet.
If you don’t get treatment, prediabetes can develop into type 2 diabetes and other conditions, such as:
- heart disease
- nerve damage
- kidney damage
- eye damage
- foot damage, in which poor blood flow may lead to amputation
- skin infections
- trouble with hearing
- Alzheimer’s disease
The good news is that prediabetes is reversible with long-term lifestyle changes.
- fish with omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon and tuna
- high-fiber foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
- alcohol, or limit to one drink per day
- foods with added sugar and unhealthy fats
Prediabetes is reversible. You can prevent or slow the development of prediabetes and diabetes by making lifestyle changes, including keeping up a moderate weight.
According to one 2017 review, each 2.2 lbs. of weight loss could lower the risk of type 2 diabetes by
A heart-healthy lifestyle includes the following:
Eating nutrient-rich foods
Be sure to include plenty of nutrient-dense, whole foods in your diet and limit your intake of highly processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages.
Fiber-rich foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can be especially beneficial to help you reach your health goals.
You can lower your risk of diabetes by regularly staying active. Doing 30 minutes of any activity that raises your heart rate to your target rate, such as walking, most days of the week is recommended.
Ways to incorporate physical activity into your daily schedule can include:
- riding a bike to work
- walking instead of riding the bus or driving
- going to a gym
- participating in recreational sports with a team
Getting 30 minutes of exercise per day and losing 5% to 7% of your weight can lower your risk of type 2 diabetes progression by more than
If left untreated, prediabetes can cause several health issues, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
But it’s reversible and can be treated by making lifestyle changes.
In addition to following a health-promoting, well-rounded diet, getting regular physical activity and taking medications as prescribed by a doctor can help prevent prediabetes from progressing.