Surgical menopause is when surgery, rather than the natural aging process, causes a woman to go through menopause. Surgical menopause occurs after an oophorectomy, a surgery that removes the ovaries.
The ovaries are the main source of estrogen production in the female body. Their removal triggers immediate menopause, despite the age of the person having surgery.
While surgery to remove the ovaries can operate as a stand-alone procedure, it’s sometimes performed in addition to hysterectomy to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases. A hysterectomy is surgical removal of the uterus.
Periods stop after a hysterectomy. But having a hysterectomy doesn’t lead to menopause unless the ovaries are removed too.
Menopause usually takes place in women between the ages of 45 and 55. A women is officially in menopause when her periods have stopped for 12 months. However, some women will begin to experience perimenopausal symptoms years before that time.
Some common symptoms during the perimenopause phase and menopause include:
Surgical menopause carries a number of side effects beyond those of menopause, including:
Surgical menopause also causes hormonal imbalances. The ovaries and adrenal glands produce progesterone and estrogen, the female sex hormones. When both ovaries are removed, the adrenal glands can’t produce enough hormones to maintain balance.
Hormonal imbalance can increase your risk of developing a variety of conditions including heart disease and osteoporosis.
For that reason, and depending on your medical history, some doctors may or may not recommend hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after an oophorectomy to reduce the risk of disease. Doctors will avoid giving estrogen to women who have a history of breast or ovarian cancer.
For some women, removing the ovaries and experiencing surgical menopause can be lifesaving.
Some cancers thrive on estrogen, which can cause women to develop cancer at an earlier age. Women who have a history of ovarian or breast cancer in their families have a greater risk of developing these diseases because their genes may be unable to suppress tumor growth.
In this case, oophorectomy can be used as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of developing cancer.
Surgical menopause can also help to reduce pain from endometriosis. This condition causes uterine tissues to growth outside the uterus. This irregular tissue can affect the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or lymph nodes and cause significant pelvic pain.
Removing the ovaries can stop or slow estrogen production and reduce pain symptoms. Estrogen replacement therapy usually isn’t an option for women with this history.
An oophorectomy causes surgical menopause. In most cases, removing the ovaries is a preventive measure against disease. Sometimes it’s performed alongside a hysterectomy, a procedure that removes the uterus.
Some women are predisposed to cancer from family history. To reduce the risk of developing cancers affecting their reproductive health, doctors may suggest removing one or both ovaries. In some cases, they may also need their uterus removed.
Other women may elect to have their ovaries removed to reduce symptoms from endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain. While there are some success stories in oophorectomy pain management, this procedure may not always be effective.
In general however, if your ovaries are normal, it’s highly recommended not to have them removed as a remedy for other pelvic conditions.
Other reasons women may want to remove both ovaries and induce surgical menopause are:
- ovary torsion, or twisted ovaries that affect blood flow
- recurrent ovarian cysts
- benign ovarian tumors
To reduce negative side effects of surgical menopause, doctors may recommend hormone replacement therapy. HRT counteracts the hormones you’ve lost after surgery.
HRT also lowers the risk of developing heart disease and prevents bone density loss and osteoporosis. This is especially important for younger women who have removed their ovaries before natural menopause.
Women younger than 45 who have their ovaries removed and who aren’t taking HRT are at an increased risk of developing cancer and heart and neurological diseases.
However, HRT has also been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for women with a strong family history of cancer.
Learn about alternatives to HRT.
You can also manage your surgical menopausal symptoms through lifestyle changes that help to reduce stress and alleviate pain.
Try the following to reduce discomfort from hot flashes:
- Carry a portable fan.
- Drink water.
- Avoid excessively spicy foods.
- Limit alcohol intake.
- Keep your bedroom cool at night.
- Keep a fan at the bedside.
There are also some things you can do to relieve stress:
- Maintain a healthy sleep cycle.
- Join a support group for pre- and postmenopausal women.
Women who undergo surgical menopause from an oophorectomy reduce their risk of developing reproductive cancers.
However, they are at an increased risk of developing other health issues. This is especially significant for women who have their ovaries removed before menopause naturally occurs.
Surgical menopause can spur a number of uncomfortable side effects. Be sure to discuss all treatment options with your doctor before deciding on an oophorectomy.