About 800,000 Americans have a stroke each year. A stroke occurs when a blood clot or a ruptured vessel cuts off blood flow to your brain. Every year, approximately 140,000 people die from stroke-related complications. This includes developing blood clots or catching pneumonia.
Although men are more likely to have a stroke, women have a higher lifetime risk. Women are also more likely to die from a stroke.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1 in 5 American women will have a stroke, and nearly 60 percent will die from the attack. Stroke is the third leading cause of death for American women.
There are many reasons why women are more likely to have a stroke: Women live longer than men, and age is another important risk factor for stroke. They’re more likely to have high blood pressure. Pregnancy and birth control also increase a woman’s risk of stroke.
The more you know about the symptoms of stroke in women, the better you’ll be able to get help. Quick treatment can mean the difference between disability and recovery.
Women may report symptoms not often associated with strokes in men. These can include:
- nausea or vomiting
- trouble breathing
- fainting or loss of consciousness
- general weakness
Because these symptoms are unique to women, it may be difficult to immediately connect them to stroke. This can delay treatment, which may hinder recovery.
If you’re a woman and unsure whether your symptoms are that of a stroke, you should still call your local emergency services. Once paramedics arrive on the scene, they can assess your symptoms and begin treatment, if needed.
Symptoms of an altered mental status
These symptoms include:
Researchers in a 2009 study found that altered mental status was the most common nontraditional symptom. About 23 percent of women and 15 percent of men reported altered mental status related to stroke. Although both men and women can be affected, women are about 1.5 times more likely to report at least one nontraditional stroke symptom.
The most common symptoms of a stroke are:
- sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- sudden numbness or weakness of your face and your limbs, most likely on one side of your body
- sudden trouble speaking or understanding, which is related to confusion
- sudden and severe headache with no known cause
- sudden dizziness, trouble walking, or loss of balance or coordination
Research shows that women often fare better at correctly identifying the signs of a stroke. A 2003 study found that 90 percent of women, compared to 85 percent of men, knew that trouble speaking or sudden confusion are signs of stroke.
The study also revealed that the majority of both women and men fail to name all symptoms correctly and identify when to call emergency services. Only 17 percent of all participants aced the survey.
|F||FACE||Ask the person to smile. Does one side of their face droop?|
|A||ARMS||Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward?|
|S||SPEECH||Ask the person to repeat a simple phrase. Is their speech slurred or strange?|
|T||TIME||If you observe any of these symptoms, it’s time to call 911 or your local emergency services immediately.|
When it comes to a stroke, every minute counts. The longer you wait to call your local emergency services, the more likely it is that the stroke will result in brain damage or disability.
Although your initial reaction may be to drive yourself to the hospital, you should stay where you are. Call your local emergency services as soon as you notice symptoms and wait for them to arrive. They can provide immediate medical attention that you would be unable to receive if you were to forego the ambulance.
After arriving at the hospital, a doctor will assess your symptoms and medical history. They’ll perform a physical exam and other diagnostic tests before making a diagnosis.
If the stroke was ischemic — the most common type — it means that a blood clot cut off blood flow to your brain. Your doctor will administer a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) medication to bust the clot.
This medication must be administered within three to four and a half hours of the first symptom’s appearance in order to be effective, according to recently updated guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA). If you’re unable to take tPA, your doctor will administer a blood thinner or other anticoagulant medication to stop platelets from forming clots.
Other treatment options include surgery or other invasive procedures that break up clots or unblock arteries. According to the updated guidelines, a mechanical clot removal can be performed up to 24 hours after the first appearance of stroke symptoms. A mechanical clot removal is also known as a mechanical thrombectomy.
The treatment approach is based on the underlying cause of the stroke:
- An aneurysm. Your doctor may suggest surgery to block blood flow to the aneurysm.
- High blood pressure. Your doctor administers medication that will lower your blood pressure and reduce bleeding.
- Faulty arteries and ruptured veins. Your doctor may recommend arteriovenous malformation (AVM) repair to prevent any additional bleeding.
Treatment for women vs. men
Research has revealed that women receive poorer emergency treatment compared to men. Researchers in a 2010 study found that women typically wait longer to be seen after arriving at the ER.
Once admitted, women may receive less intensive care and therapeutic workups. It’s theorized that this could be because of the nontraditional symptoms some women experience, which can delay a stroke diagnosis.
Stroke recovery starts in the hospital. Once your condition improves, you’ll be moved to a different location, such as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) or stroke rehab facility. Some people also continue their care at home. At-home care can be supplemented with outpatient therapy or hospice care.
Recovery might include a combination of physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy to help you regain cognitive skills. A care team may teach you how to brush your teeth, bathe, walk, or perform other physical activities.
Studies show that women who survive strokes usually recover more slowly than men.
Women are also more likely to experience:
- stroke-related disability
- impaired daily living activities
- mental impairment
- reduced quality of life
- eat a balanced diet
- maintain a healthy weight
- get regular exercise
- quit smoking
- take up a hobby, such as knitting or yoga, to help better manage stress
Women should also take added precautions because of the unique risk factors they face. This means:
Stroke recovery can vary from person to person. Physical therapy may be able to help you relearn any lost skills. Some people may be able to relearn how to walk or talk within a matter of months. Others may need more time to recover.
During this time, it’s important to stay on track with rehabilitation and maintain or develop a healthy lifestyle. In addition to aiding your recovery, this may help prevent future strokes.