Dementia refers to a group of symptoms resulting in cognitive decline. This includes problems with memory, communication, and concentration. Dementia can happen after your brain has been damaged by an injury or disease, such as a stroke.
A stroke, or a “brain attack,” occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. If this happens because a blood vessel bursts, it’s known as a hemorrhagic stroke. Although this type of stroke is less common, it’s more likely to result in death.
If blood flow is only interrupted for short time, it’s known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), or “ministroke.” TIA symptoms lasts less than 24 hours before disappearing.
Vascular dementia can make it difficult for you to process information. Although it’s a common post-stroke problem, not everyone who has a stroke is at risk for vascular dementia. Your risk depends on the location and severity of your stroke. Your age, sex, and family history are also factors.
In a 2012 study, one researcher reviewed nine studies on dementia in people who’ve had a stroke. In total, the study looked at 5,514 people with pre- or post-stroke dementia. The study found that rates of post-stroke dementia were between 9.6 and 14.4 percent in people who’ve had one stroke. This rate increased to 29.6 to 53.1 percent in people with recurrent stroke.
It’s worth noting that adults over age 65 who have a high risk of stroke also have a high risk of dementia unrelated to stroke. In the same 2012 study, it was determined that stroke is a risk factor for dementia, and dementia is a risk factor for stroke.
Rates from 9 studies show that about 10 percent of people who’ve had a stroke will develop dementia within the first year after the stroke.
There are four different types of vascular dementia. Three of these types are related to stroke. Each type affects a different part of the brain and results from a different type of damage. Symptoms vary and can progress in different ways.
An infarct refers to an area of cells that has died from a lack of blood supply. This typically happens when someone has one large ischemic stroke.
This type generally occurs after a person has had multiple ministrokes over time. These ministrokes can cause tiny spots of damage scattered throughout the brain.
Subcortical dementia is associated with lacunar stroke, a form of ischemic stroke. Lacunar stroke occurs when small arteries located deep in the brain are blocked.
Subcortical dementia is caused by small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can happen when vessels deep inside your brain become completely blocked as a result of a lacunar stroke. The resulting damage may progress to subcortical dementia.
It’s also known as subcortical vascular dementia.
When vascular dementia occurs at the same time as Alzheimer’s disease, it’s known as mixed dementia. One of the two types is generally more apparent. The dominant type will determine the course of treatment.
The symptoms of vascular dementia can vary from person to person and from type to type. If you’ve had a stroke, you may find that your symptoms develop suddenly. Symptoms typically develop more gradually when vascular dementia is the result of another condition, such as small vessel disease.
Early cognitive symptoms of vascular dementia include:
- problems with planning or organizing
- difficulty following directions, such as when cooking or driving
- feelings of slowness or confusion
- trouble concentrating
If your vascular dementia is still in the early stages, you may also have trouble with:
It’s also common to experience mood changes. These may include:
Although doctors can generally diagnose dementia, it’s difficult to determine the specific type of dementia. It’s important to take note of any symptoms that you’re experiencing, no matter how minor or infrequent. This can help your doctor narrow down the possible causes and make a more accurate diagnosis.
Your doctor will also look at your complete medical history. If necessary, they will test your:
Your doctor will likely check your overall neurological health. To do this, they will test your:
- muscle tone and strength
- ability to stand
- ability to walk
- sense of touch
- sense of sight
Because vascular dementia is a complex condition that gets progressively worse as time goes by, your doctor may recommend seeing additional specialists.
Although there aren’t any medications specifically for vascular dementia, treatment plans often include medication recommended for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia.
There are two types of drugs used for managing Alzheimer’s disease, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine (Namenda).
Cholinesterase inhibitors boost the levels of a chemical messenger in your brain that’s involved with memory and judgment. Side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors may include:
The drug memantine helps to regulate a different chemical messenger in the brain. This messenger deals with information processing and memory. Side effects of memantine may include:
Treatment plans for vascular dementia may also include recommendations for lifestyle changes. Lifestyle changes may help prevent future strokes. They may also help improve existing cognitive issues and other post-stroke physical symptoms.
Potential lifestyle changes include:
The risk factors for vascular dementia are the same as those for stroke and heart disease. For example, your risk for these conditions increases as you age. Also, vascular dementia rarely occurs before age 65, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Having a history of heart attack or stroke can also increase your risk for vascular dementia.
Other risk factors are more preventable. These include:
If you think you’re at risk, talk with your doctor about what you can do to decrease your risk and improve your overall health. They can walk you through your options and help you make a plan of action.
Vascular dementia is a progressive disease. Its symptoms generally worsen over time. You may experience a sudden change in symptoms followed by a relatively stable period with consistently predictable symptoms.
Vascular dementia can shorten your overall life expectancy. This is because the condition is associated with many complications, such as pneumonia. However, treatment can help improve your quality of life.
You may find it beneficial to take the following actions:
- Increase cognitive stimulation to help keep memory and communication active.
- Break routines into smaller, more manageable steps. This can help decrease frustration, anxiety, and depressive feelings. It may also help increase your sense of confidence and self-worth.
- Participate in rehabilitation, including physiotherapy and language or speech therapy, to address post-stroke symptoms.