Eczema causes redness, itchiness, dryness, and inflammation of the skin. While the cause of eczema isn’t fully understood, identifying and avoiding potential triggers is one way to maintain clear and healthy skin.

Mild to moderate eczema may respond well to over-the-counter (OTC) topical creams. If you have severe eczema, you may need to take additional measures to limit exposure to certain triggers.

If you aren’t sure what sparks your eczema outbreaks, here’s a look at 13 common triggers and how to avoid them.

Certain foods can worsen your eczema. You might experience a flare-up after you consume foods and ingredients that are inflammatory. Examples include sugar, refined carbohydrates, gluten, red meats, and dairy.

Similarly, eating foods that you’re allergic to can trigger an inflammatory response and make your eczema symptoms worse.

If you do have a food allergy, one way to pinpoint foods that may exacerbate your symptoms is through an elimination diet. Write down everything you eat and drink for a few weeks. Then, make a note of the days your eczema appears to worsen to track patterns.

If flares seem to occur after eating dairy, for example, don’t consume any dairy products for a few days or weeks. Monitor your symptoms for improvement. If your eczema improves, slowly reintroduce dairy back into your diet.

If symptoms return, dairy is likely an eczema trigger for you. Removing these foods from your diet could promote healthier skin. If you think you might be allergic to a certain food, bring this up to your doctor. They can refer you to an allergist for further testing.

You may welcome the arrival of winter, but chillier temperatures can cause an eczema flare in some people.

Cold weather and dry air often go hand in hand. Too much dry air can zap your skin of natural moisture. Dryness often leads to itching, which then leads to scratching and inflammation.

To protect your skin, apply a skin moisturizer at least twice a day and use a humidifier in your home.

On the other hand, hot weather can also irritate eczema. Heavy perspiration can lead to itchy skin.

Stay as cool as possible to limit sweating. Also, drink plenty of fluids to avoid overheating, sit or stand in shady areas, and use a fan.

Prolonged exposure to water is another eczema trigger. Water can cause dry skin, which can lead to persistent itching.

Apply moisturizer to your skin after bathing or swimming, and take lukewarm baths or showers to prevent drying out your skin.

Emotional stress doesn’t cause eczema, but it can provoke symptoms.

The body releases a hormone called cortisol when under stress. In large doses, such as when dealing with chronic and ongoing stress, cortisol increases inflammation throughout the body. This can lead to skin inflammation and an eczema flare.

Deep breathing, meditation, getting plenty of rest, and regular exercise are keys to coping with stressful situations. The ability to reduce stress may keep your eczema under control.

If you have difficulty controlling anxiety or stress on your own, talk to your doctor about treatments or therapies.

Laundry detergents can lead to problems in people with sensitive skin. Many detergents contain chemicals and fragrances that irritate the skin, causing dryness, itchiness, and redness.

If your eczema appears to worsen after laundry day, switch to a fragrance-free detergent that’s safe for sensitive skin.

Similar to laundry detergents, scented products that you apply to the body can also worsen eczema. Some people with eczema also have contact dermatitis, which is when rashes occur after contact with a substance. Scented soaps, lotions, perfumes, shower gels, and other personal care items can irritate the skin and trigger a flare.

Look for hypoallergenic, scent-free body products. Closely monitor your symptoms after starting a new product. If your symptoms worsen, discontinue use.

Sometimes, it’s not the detergent or scented product that causes an eczema flare, but rather the fabrics you wear. You may be sensitive to materials like polyester or wool, which can trigger itchiness and redness.

Avoid wearing any clothes that appear to worsen your condition, or wear an extra layer under the garment to protect your skin.

Airborne allergens like dust mites, pollen, pet dander, and mold can be eczema triggers.

To keep your home allergen-free, dust and vacuum regularly, and wash your bedding at least once a week. Also, look into replacing your carpet with hardwood floors.

Ask your doctor about OTC or prescription antihistamines to help control your symptoms.

A heavy workout could lead to heavy sweating, making your eczema symptoms worse.

If you have flares after exercising, lower the intensity of your workout or choose a cooler time of day to complete workout sessions. Exercise in the early morning hours before the heat of the day, or keep a fan nearby.

If left untreated, severe eczema can lead to skin damage, putting you at risk for infections. At the same time, developing a fungal, viral, or bacterial skin infection may trigger an eczema flare.

See a doctor if you notice any changes to your skin. You may need an antibacterial or antifungal medication to fight an infection and, in turn, relieve your eczema symptoms.

Hormonal changes can also have an effect on your eczema. This is due to a drop in estrogen, which can occur during menopause and pregnancy, and before a menstrual cycle.

This decrease causes the skin to lose water, interfering with its ability to maintain moisture. This can lead to dryness and make your eczema worse.

While you might not be able to avoid this completely, talk to your doctor about potential ways to regulate your hormones. Also, make sure to moisturize more than usual during this time.

Eczema is common in babies and children, so it’s important to protect their delicate skin. Eczema patches can develop around the cheeks and chin of a drooling baby.

Saliva or drooling doesn’t cause eczema, but it can dry out a baby’s skin and cause itchy, red spots. To avoid this, apply lotions or creams that are safe for sensitive skin.

Managing your eczema doesn’t only involve the use of creams and medications. It also involves awareness of your potential triggers.

Keep track of your day-to-day tasks to identify what could be worsening your symptoms. Then, take the necessary steps to reduce exposure to those foods or products. Over time, you may see improvements in your symptoms.