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From glowing skin to a newfound appreciation for your body, there are many things to love about pregnancy. Another is that you’ll have at least nine months of freedom from your period. But after you deliver, you’re probably curious what will happen with your menstrual cycle.
When your period returns often depends on whether or not you breastfeed. And just like your life after baby, you might find your periods after pregnancy are somewhat different.
Your period will typically return about six to eight weeks after you give birth, if you aren’t breastfeeding. If you do breastfeed, the timing for a period to return can vary. Those who practice exclusive breastfeeding might not have a period the entire time they breastfeed. “Exclusive breastfeeding” means that your baby is receiving only your breast milk. But for others, it might return after a couple of months, whether they’re breastfeeding or not.
If your period does return quickly after giving birth and you had a vaginal delivery, your doctor might recommend that you avoid using tampons during your first menstruation post-baby.
This is because your body is still healing, and tampons could potentially cause trauma. Ask your doctor if you can return to using tampons at your six-week postpartum checkup.
Typically, women who are breastfeeding don’t get their periods as quickly because of the body’s hormones. Prolactin, the hormone needed to produce breast milk, can suppress reproductive hormones. As a result, you don’t ovulate or release an egg for fertilization. Without this process, you most likely won’t menstruate.
When your period does return, you may notice some changes in your milk supply or your baby’s reaction to breast milk. The hormonal changes that cause your body to have your period may also influence your breast milk.
For instance, you might notice a decrease in your milk supply or a change in how often your baby wants to nurse. The hormone changes might also affect your breast milk’s composition and how it tastes to your baby. These changes are usually very minor, however, and shouldn’t affect your ability to breastfeed your baby.
Some use breastfeeding as a natural birth control method. According to the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals, fewer than 1 out of 100 women will get pregnant annually if they’re engaging in exclusive breastfeeding. Even though breastfeeding reduces your fertility, it’s not an absolute guarantee you won’t get pregnant again.
The key here is exclusive breastfeeding. Other than breast milk, no fluids or solids are given to the baby with exclusive breastfeeding. Even water. Supplements or vitamins don’t interfere and can be given to the baby. Breastfeeding that doesn’t fit this description might not protect against another pregnancy.
If you’re breastfeeding and your period does return, you’re no longer protected against getting pregnant. It’s also important to note that it can be difficult to predict the return of fertility. You will ovulate before your period starts, so it’s entirely possible to get pregnant again before your period returns.
Safe and effective birth control methods are available for those who are breastfeeding. Nonhormonal options such as the copper intrauterine device (IUD), condoms, and diaphragms are always safe for breastfeeding.
There are also some hormonal birth control options that are considered safe during breastfeeding. Your doctor can provide the latest updates on specific types of birth control. In general, low-dose combination pills that contain estrogen and progestin are considered safe after you’ve healed from birth. Progestin-only pills are also safe to use while breastfeeding.
When you do start your period again, chances are the first period after delivery won’t be like your periods before you got pregnant. Your body is once again adjusting to menstruation. You may experience some of the following differences:
- cramping that might be stronger or lighter than usual
- small blood clots
- heavier flow
- flow that seems to stop and start
- increased pain
- irregular cycle lengths
The first period after your pregnancy may be heavier than you’re used to. It might also be accompanied by more intense cramping, due to an increased amount of uterine lining that needs to be shed. As you continue your cycle, these changes will likely decrease. In rare cases, complications such as thyroid problems or adenomyosis can cause heavy bleeding after pregnancy. Adenomyosis is a thickening of the uterine wall.
Women who had endometriosis before pregnancy might actually have lighter periods after giving birth. Light periods can also be caused by two rare conditions, Asherman syndrome and Sheehan syndrome. Asherman syndrome leads to scar tissue in the uterus. Sheehan syndrome is caused by damage to your pituitary gland, which may be the result of severe blood loss.
Mildly painful postpartum periods can be caused by a combination of several factors. They include:
- increased intensity of uterine cramping
- the hormones of breastfeeding
- the uterine cavity becoming larger after pregnancy, which means there’s more uterine lining to be shed during menstruation
Whether you delivered your baby vaginally or by cesarean delivery, you can expect some bleeding and vaginal discharge after giving birth. Your body continues to shed the blood and tissue that lined your uterus while you were pregnant.
In the first few weeks, blood might be heavier and appear in clots. As the weeks go by, this blood gives way to vaginal discharge known as lochia. Lochia is bodily fluid that can appear clear to creamy white to red in color.
This discharge can continue for about six weeks, which is about the time your period may return if you aren’t breastfeeding. If your discharge had the appearance of lochia, stopped for some time, and then you experienced a return of bleeding, this is likely your period. If you aren’t sure if the bleeding you’re experiencing is pregnancy-related or your period, there are a few ways to tell:
- Lochia isn’t usually bright red in color beyond the first week postpartum. It’s usually lighter and can be watery or white in appearance. Bright red bleeding that occurs six or more weeks after delivery is more likely to be your period.
- Pregnancy-related bleeding can increase with increased exertion or activity. If your discharge increases with exertion and decreases when you rest, it’s more likely to be lochia.
- Lochia also tends to have a distinct odor. Lochia may have a “sweet” smell to it, since it’s mixed with leftover tissue from the pregnancy. Report any foul order to your doctor.
It can also take some time for your cycle to regulate after birth. You might find that you have your first period, skip a cycle, and then have another period that comes sooner than expected.
During your first postpartum year, it can be normal for your periods to fluctuate in length, time between cycles, and intensity of bleeding. This is especially true if you’re breastfeeding.
According to the Cleveland Clinic, most postpartum women will have a “normal” menstrual cycle of 21 to 35 days with bleeding that lasts 2 to 7 days. Period cycles can change from what you experienced before pregnancy.
It’s important that you call a doctor if you experience any of the following symptoms:
- soaking through more than one pad every hour
- bleeding that’s accompanied by sudden and severe pain
- a sudden fever
- bleeding continuously for more than seven days
- blood clots that are bigger than a softball
- foul-smelling discharge
- severe headache
- trouble breathing
- pain while urinating
Contact your doctor if you experience these symptoms or anything else that concerns you related to your period. Some of these symptoms may indicate an infection.
A return to your menstrual cycle is just one of the parts of recovery and returning to your prepregnancy body. In some, menstruation may be delayed due to the hormone increases associated with breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding as a form of contraception isn’t foolproof. Having a backup method, such as oral contraception or a condom, can help provide further protection. You can find a great selection of condoms here.
If anything seems out of the ordinary about your first period after pregnancy, contact your doctor. Excess bleeding or indications of infection are especially concerning for a new parent. Listen to your body and play it safe.