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What’s a pinworm infection?
A pinworm infection is one of the most common types of human intestinal worm infections. Pinworms are tiny, narrow worms. They’re white in color and less than a half-inch long. Pinworm infections are also known as enterobiasis or oxyuriasis.
They’re the most common type of human worm infection in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Pinworm infections can spread easily. They’re most common in children between the ages of 5 and 10, people who live in institutions, and those who have regular, close contact with individuals in these groups.
An effective treatment for pinworm infections is medication, though reinfection is possible. Serious complications and long-term health effects are rare.
Some individuals with pinworm infections may not experience any symptoms. However, you may suspect that you or your child has a pinworm infection if you notice:
Pinworms infections are highly contagious. You become infected with pinworms by unintentionally ingesting or inhaling pinworm eggs.
These eggs are usually deposited onto a surface or object by a person who’s been infected. The cycle of infection begins with the ingestion of these microscopic eggs.
Once the eggs enter your body, they remain in the intestine until they hatch and mature. As adults, the female pinworms move into the colon and exit the body through the anus at night.
Female pinworms lay eggs in the folds of skin around the anus and then return to the colon. The presence of these eggs often causes anal itching and irritation.
When a person scratches the affected area, the pinworm eggs transfer to the fingers. The eggs can survive for several hours on your hands.
If a person who’s been infected touches household objects like bedding, clothing, toilet seats, or toys, the eggs will transfer to these objects. Pinworm eggs can survive on these contaminated surfaces for up to three weeks.
Children transfer pinworm eggs easily because they may put infected toys or other objects directly into their mouths. The eggs can also transfer from contaminated fingers directly to food or liquids.
While uncommon, it’s also possible for adults to inhale airborne eggs when shaking contaminated bedding, towels, or clothing.
Pinworms generally live for up to 13 weeks. Scratching an affected area can lead to unintentional ingestion, which can lead to reinfection and a restart of the entire pinworm life process.
Sometimes, eggs on the anus can hatch and the pinworm larvae can reinfect the intestine that they came from. This can cause an infection to continue indefinitely if it’s not treated.
Pinworm infections affect people of all ages and geographical regions. Since the pinworm eggs are microscopic, it’s impossible to avoid individuals or areas that have been infected.
While anyone can get a pinworm infection, the following groups are more susceptible:
- children who attend day care, preschool, or elementary school
- family members or caregivers of people who have been infected
- individuals who live in institutions or other crowded accommodations, such as dormitories
- children or adults who don’t practice regular and careful handwashing prior to eating
- children who have a habit of sucking their thumbs
Humans are the only pinworm hosts. Your cat or dog can’t infect you or be infected with pinworms.
It’s not necessary to treat your pets for the infection, even if others in your household are affected.
A tape test is the most reliable method for diagnosing a pinworm infection. This test consists of taking a piece of cellophane tape and pressing the sticky, adhesive side against the skin around the anus.
Pinworms often exit the anus while a person sleeps. Because of this, people who suspect they’ve been infected should conduct a tape test upon waking in the morning. If eggs are present, they’ll stick to the tape.
Take the tape to your doctor, who can place it on a slide and examine it under a microscope to see if it contains pinworm eggs.
Routine morning activities, such as bathing or using the toilet, can remove eggs from your skin. Therefore, the results of a tape test are most accurate if you perform the test when you first wake up.
The CDC recommends that you conduct a tape test at least three times, on three consecutive mornings, to increase your likelihood of finding pinworm eggs.
You can get rid of pinworms with the help of medications and household cleaning strategies.
Your doctor can usually treat a pinworm infection effectively with oral medication.
Since pinworms pass so easily from one person to another, everyone living in the household of an infected person usually needs treatment at the same time to prevent reinfection.
Caregivers and others who have close, personal contact with the individual should also receive treatment.
The most common and effective medications to treat pinworm infection are:
- mebendazole (Vermox)
- albendazole (Albenza)
- pyrantel pamoate (Reese’s Pinworm Medicine)
One course of medication usually involves an initial dose, followed by a second dose two to three weeks later. More than one course may be necessary to fully eliminate the pinworm eggs. Creams or ointments can soothe itching skin in the area around the anus.
Shop for Reese’s Pinworm Medicine.
Clearing your home of pinworms
In addition to medication, a specific regimen of hygiene and household cleaning can help you completely eliminate the pinworm eggs:
- Ensure that the person who’s been infected and other household members practice thorough handwashing with warm water and soap. This is especially important before eating.
- Encourage everyone in the household to shower and change their underwear every morning.
- Clean everyone’s fingernails and cut them short.
- Instruct everyone to stop biting their nails.
- Tell the person who’s been infected to refrain from scratching the anal area.
- Use hot water to launder all bedding, towels, washcloths, and clothing in the affected house. Dry these items using high heat.
- Avoid shaking clothing and bedding to keep pinworm eggs from spreading into the air.
- Don’t allow children to bathe together, as this can cause pinworm eggs to spread in the bath water.
- Thoroughly clean any surfaces that may be infected, including toys, floors, countertops, and toilet seats.
- Carefully vacuum all carpeted areas.
There are no recent scientific studies that support the idea that home remedies are effective against pinworm infection.
However, anecdotal evidence suggests that some people may find relief with raw garlic, coconut oil, or raw carrots. Learn more about home remedies for pinworms.
Most people don’t experience serious complications as a result of pinworm infections. In rare cases, if the infestation is left untreated, pinworm infections can lead to a urinary tract infection (UTI) in women.
Pinworms can also travel from the anus into the vagina, affecting the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic organs. This may result in other infections, including vaginitis and endometritis. Endometritis is an inflammation of the uterine lining.
The presence of a significant number of pinworms can cause abdominal pain.
Substantial pinworm populations can rob your body of essential nutrients, which can cause weight loss.
The best way to prevent pinworm infections and reinfections is to follow recommended hygiene routines and encourage other household members, especially children, to do the same.
You can work to prevent pinworm infections with several practices:
- Wash your hands with warm water and soap after using the toilet. Be especially careful after bowel movements and changing diapers. Do the same before preparing food and eating. This is the best mode of prevention.
- Keep your fingernails short and clean.
- Discourage habits that could spread pinworm eggs, such as nail biting or scratching.
- Shower daily in the morning to remove pinworm eggs that may have been deposited overnight.
- Change your underwear and clothing daily.
- Use hot water in the washing machine and hot air in the dryer when laundering bedding, clothing, and towels that may contain pinworm eggs.
- Keep rooms well-lit during the day because the eggs are sensitive to sunlight.
It’s possible to eradicate a pinworm infection with medication and the recommended cleaning regimen. However, because pinworm eggs are invisible to the naked eye and are highly contagious, reinfection can easily occur.
A person can reinfect themselves or become reinfected by eggs from another person.
If you experience recurrent infections after you’ve treated your household, individuals and locations outside of the household may be the primary source of the pinworm eggs.