Narcissistic abuse syndrome is a non-medical term for feelings of anxiety, avoidance, and fear due to emotional abuse from someone with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD).
Narcissistic abuse victim syndrome is a term that collectively describes the specific and often severe effects of narcissistic manipulation. While this isn’t a recognized mental health condition, many experts acknowledge narcissistic abuse can have a serious, long lasting impact on mental health.
Some people may also refer to this as narcissistic victim syndrome.
Keep in mind that abuse and narcissism aren’t always related. A diagnosis of NPD doesn’t automatically translate to abusive behavior, and many people who engage in abuse don’t have NPD.
Regardless, a mental health diagnosis never excuses abusive behavior. People choose to abuse and manipulate others, and it’s possible to live with traits of narcissism, or any personality disorder, without becoming abusive.
NDP is a complex mental health condition typically involving a grandiose or inflated sense of self and an extreme need for admiration and attention, among other symptoms.
Common types of narcissistic manipulation include:
- Triangulation. Someone using this tactic will try to pull a third person into your conflict, typically to reinforce their own opinion or position.
- Gaslighting. Someone trying to gaslight you tries to get you to doubt your perspective and reality, often by twisting facts or insisting things you remember didn’t actually happen.
- Hoovering. This tactic involves attempts to reconnect or pull you back into a toxic or abusive relationship.
- Silent treatment. This behavior becomes manipulative when someone purposely ignores you to control you or make you feel isolated.
- Scapegoating. Parents who use narcissistic manipulation may place all the blame on one child they designate as a scapegoat.
- Passive aggression. Indirect blame-shifting, sabotage, and sarcasm can all point to covert narcissistic manipulation.
These tactics can confuse you, make you question your sense of reality, and damage your self-esteem.
With that in mind, here are 12 signs that might suggest you’ve experienced narcissistic abuse.
Narcissistic abuse tends to follow a clear pattern, though this pattern might look different depending on the type of relationship.
Research from 2019 suggests that in a romantic relationship, this abuse typically begins slowly after you’ve fallen hard and fast.
During an initial love-bombing phase, they seemed loving, kind, and generous. They made you feel special and adored with gushy compliments, affectionate displays, and expensive gifts.
This early stage might have felt so intense and overwhelming that you never stopped to consider whether they might be too fantastic. Then slowly, negging or other manipulative tactics began to replace the gifts and declarations of love.
Narcissistic parents might also offer love, adoration, praise, and financial support until you do something to displease them and lose their favor. Then they, too, often turn to tactics like negging, silent treatment, and gaslighting.
Narcissistic manipulation and abuse are often subtle. In public, these behaviors might be so well disguised that others hear or see the same behaviors and fail to recognize them as abuse.
You might not even fully understand what’s happening. You only know you feel confused, upset, or even guilty for your “mistakes.”
A narcissistic parent might gently say, “Are you sure you want to eat dessert?” Or they might turn you breaking a dish into a joke at your expense: “You’re so clumsy. You just can’t help yourself, can you?” They laugh with everyone in the room while patting your shoulder to make the insult seem well-intentioned.
This doubt can be doubly harmful. Not only does it dismantle your faith in your loved ones, but it can also lead you to wonder whether the abuse occurred after all.
People with narcissistic traits often need to maintain their image of perfection to earn admiration from others. To do this, they may try to make you look bad.
Once you begin pointing out problems or questioning their behavior, they might lash out by:
- openly directing their rage toward you with insults and threats
- involving others in criticizing you
By telling stories to your loved ones that twist the facts about your “harmful” or “unstable” behavior, the narcissist tries to discredit you. Even worse, when you react angrily (who wouldn’t?), they can use your response to back up their lies.
People with narcissism often have a knack for charming others. That persona they showed you in the beginning? Everyone else sees that still.
They can often win support from your loved ones (who haven’t seen through the facade) by insisting they only have your best interests at heart. Then, when you try explaining the abuse, your loved ones might side with them.
If your loved ones don’t understand, you’ll likely feel pretty alone — which only increases your vulnerability to further narcissistic manipulation. The person abusing you may pull you back in with kindness, even apologies, or by pretending the abuse never happened.
“Hoovering,” as it’s often called, tends to work better when you lack support. You’re more likely to doubt your perceptions of the abuse when you can’t talk with anyone about it.
If your loved ones reach out to say you’ve made a mistake and encourage you to give the abusive partner another chance, you might end up doing so simply to regain your closeness with family and friends.
People respond to abuse and other trauma in different ways.
You might attempt to confront the abusive person (fight) or escape the situation (flight). If these methods don’t work or you feel unable to use them, you might respond by freezing or fawning.
The freeze response usually happens when you feel helpless.
Freezing can have some benefits in certain situations, but it doesn’t help much when you can escape from danger. Yet if you believe there’s no way out of the relationship, you might remain in it — and perhaps even respond by fawning or working to keep your partner happy.
A pattern of devaluation and criticism can leave you with very little self-esteem and confidence.
Narcissistic manipulation often involves frequent implications that you make bad decisions and can’t do anything right. An abusive partner may call you stupid or ignorant outright, often with a falsely affectionate tone: “Honey, you’re so dumb. How would you manage without my help?”
Over time, you might start absorbing these insults and attaching them to your self-perception, constantly second-guessing yourself as a result.
Gaslighting tactics can also make you doubt your decision-making abilities. (Here’s how to respond.)
If someone manipulates you into believing you imagined things that actually took place, you might continue doubting your perception of events. This uncertainty can affect your ability to make decisions well into the future.
Narcissism and abuse
It is important to note that narcissism manifests in many possible ways, and having an NPD diagnosis does not mean a person will engage in emotional abuse.
Narcissistic abuse syndrome is not a defined medical concept, so research around it is uncertain.
This article covers possible signs of narcissistic abuse, but these are tentative, and many may or may not occur in different cases.
A key characteristic of narcissism is difficulty taking responsibility for any negative actions or harmful behavior.
Abusive partners typically find some way to cast blame on you instead. They might accomplish this through deceit, often by:
- insisting they said something you have no recollection of
- getting so angry you end up soothing them by apologizing and agreeing you were wrong.
Say you suspect they’ve cheated on you. You explain the concerning behaviors you’ve noticed and ask if something’s going on.
A partner using narcissistic manipulation might respond with extreme anger. They may respond with accusations of their own and redirect blame, saying things that are intended to hurt and belittle you.
These barrages of rage can leave you feeling helpless and dependent, grateful they’re willing to remain with someone who makes so many mistakes.
Even after leaving the relationship, you might believe you can’t do anything right. When things go wrong in other areas of life, you might start to blame yourself for causing those problems.
Abuse can trigger anxious and nervous feelings that sometimes lead to physical symptoms.
You might notice:
- appetite changes
- upset stomach or nausea
- stomach pain and other gastrointestinal distress
- muscle aches and pains
Using alcohol and other substances can sometimes seem helpful in managing these symptoms, especially insomnia. As a result, you might consume more than you’d like to manage unwanted feelings or physical distress.
Narcissistic abuse can sometimes be unpredictable. You may not know whether they’re going to criticize you or surprise you with a gift.
If you don’t know what someone will do or say at any given moment, you might develop a lot of tension from needing to regularly prepare yourself to face conflict.
Worries about the constant stream of criticism and how to best handle the abusive behaviors you’re beginning to recognize can also leave you constantly on edge. You may not know how to relax anymore since you may not feel safe letting your guard down.
When facing abuse, many people eventually adjust their self-identity to accommodate an abusive partner.
Say your partner insists, “When you go out with your friends, you’re telling me you don’t love me. You’d rather see them instead.”
Of course, you love them, so you stop going out with your friends. Next, you give up your hobbies, skip after-work happy hour with co-workers, and eventually cancel your weekly visit with your sister. You spend time doing what your partner wants to do, so they know you really do care.
These changes often lead to losing your sense of self, leaving you feeling lost and empty. You might have difficulty enjoying life and lose sight of your sense of purpose.
Someone engaging in narcissistic abuse often has little respect for boundaries. When you try to set or enforce limits, they might challenge them, completely ignore them, or give you silent treatment until you do what they want. Eventually, you might give up on your boundaries entirely.
Once you end the relationship or get distance from a narcissistic parent, you promise yourself you won’t answer their calls and texts or see them at all.
If they know they can eventually wear you down, though, they might not let you go easily. Instead, they’ll keep calling and texting in the hopes of getting you to set aside your boundaries again.
If you’ve experienced narcissistic abuse, you might also have trouble setting healthy boundaries in your relationships with others.
The significant stress you face can trigger persistent feelings of worry, nervousness, and fear, especially when you never know what to expect from their behavior.
You might feel hopeless or worthless, lose interest in things that used to bring you joy and have difficulty seeing hopeful outcomes for the future.
Any kind of abuse can take a significant toll on mental and physical health. If your loved ones still doubt you or tell you to just move on, you may feel unheard and unsupported. This can make it hard to trust people again, leaving you feeling isolated and alone.
Whether you’re just beginning to notice the first signs of narcissistic manipulation or still trying to make sense of an abusive relationship you’ve already left, therapy can help you begin healing.
Therapy offers a safe space to:
- learn coping strategies to manage mental health symptoms
- practice setting healthy boundaries
- explore ways to rebuild your sense of self
A therapist who specializes in abuse recovery can validate your experience, help you understand that you aren’t at fault, and offer support through the early stages of recovery.
Crystal Raypole writes for Healthline and Psych Central. Her fields of interest include Japanese translation, cooking, natural sciences, sex positivity, and mental health, along with books, books, and more books. In particular, she’s committed to helping decrease stigma around mental health issues. She lives in Washington with her son and a lovably recalcitrant cat.