Multiple sclerosis (MS) can affect many different parts of the body. Managing it typically involves a team of doctors and healthcare professionals. They will work closely with you to determine the best course of care. An MS team typically includes the following health professionals.

If you have any symptoms of MS, see your family doctor or primary care physician (PCP) first. After your doctor takes a physical exam and reviews your medical history, they may refer you to a neurologist.

A neurologist is a doctor who specializes in diseases of the nervous system. You’ll find neurologists in:

  • private practices
  • community-based MS centers
  • academic settings
  • general clinical settings

A neurologist is involved in testing, diagnosis, treatment, and symptom management.

Information to have handy

Before your appointment with a neurologist, it’s a good idea to write down a few things. Your neurologist will ask many questions to help them make an accurate diagnosis. Having the answers ready will help with the process. Some questions you may be asked include:

  • What are your symptoms?
  • When did they begin?
  • Are they constant or do they come and go?
  • What makes your symptoms worse?
  • What makes them better?
  • How severe are they?
  • Does anyone in your family have MS?
  • What other medical conditions do you have?
  • What medications do you take?

Questions to ask

You should also consider writing down questions you’d like your doctor to answer for you. Some things you might want to ask include:

  • Do you think I have MS?
  • How will we know for sure?
  • Is there a test?
  • What else might be causing my symptoms?
  • Can this be treated?
  • Will it go away?
  • Is it going to get worse?
  • What do you recommend?

A neuropsychologist will help you manage your mental function. MS can cause difficulties with memory, focus, information processing, and problem solving. A neuropsychologist might teach you exercises to help maintain and improve mental function.

A clinical nurse specialist, nurse practitioner, or registered nurse might be involved in your care. These professionals have advanced training. They can help you in many areas, including:

  • adjusting to your diagnosis
  • ongoing assessment and management of symptoms
  • counseling
  • maintaining general good health
  • giving medication
  • monitoring side effects
  • communicating with the healthcare team

A social worker is trained to assist you in identifying and accessing:

  • community services
  • programs
  • resources
  • entitlements

Social workers are also trained to provide counseling, emotional support, and crisis intervention.

A psychologist can diagnose and treat issues related to mental health, such as depression, which is common in MS. Interventions can include specialized testing and ongoing counseling and support for you and your family.

A physiatrist is a doctor who specializes in rehabilitation medicine. A physiatrist will design a treatment plan to help you function at the highest level possible. This may include exercise and assistive devices as well as medication. The goal is to give you the highest possible quality of life.

Physical therapists (PTs) treat problems that involve balance, coordination, strength, and mobility. PTs assess for:

  • muscle strength
  • range of motion
  • proprioception, which is the perception of your location in space (is the toe up or down, for example)
  • muscle tone
  • gait
  • balance transfers
  • mobility

PTs help you find the balance between exercise and fatigue. They will:

  • help you strengthen muscles
  • teach you the appropriate use of rehabilitation equipment and mobility devices
  • measure for and apply braces and other orthotic supports
  • help you maintain a fitness-oriented lifestyle

An occupational therapist (OT) will help you stay productive, safe, and independent in your home and work environments. Treatment may involve modifications of your space, such as:

  • bathrooms
  • kitchens
  • entrances
  • stairways
  • cars

They can also help you develop strategies to simplify jobs and conserve energy.

A dietician or nutritionist will help you maintain a healthy diet. There’s no diet specific to MS, but eating a healthy diet will help you stay healthy. A dietician can teach you how to prepare healthy meals that can help with weight management and reduce fatigue and constipation. A dietician can also help with any swallowing problems that you might develop because of MS.

A speech-language pathologist (SLP) can help if you have problems with:

  • breathing
  • swallowing
  • speech
  • cognition

In the case of swallowing problems, an SLP works with a physical therapist and dietician to help you learn to eat safely. If you have speech difficulties, they can help with speech production and clarity so that you can continue to communicate effectively.

A recreational therapist helps you find diverse activities appropriate to your level of function. This will help improve your quality of life. Activities such as swimming, yoga, tai chi, hippotherapy (horseback riding), meditation, and other fitness programs have been found to be helpful in managing MS.

Reading, computer use, board games, and other mind-stimulating programs are also important for recreation with others and for relaxation on your own.