Hormones can impact every system in the body. Growth hormones and even insulin imbalances may even play a role in penis size and function.

When you think about hormones, the first thing that may come to mind is puberty and reproductive functions. While hormones do affect these areas of the body, they also serve as chemical messengers for just about every function of every system in the body.

Hormones can link surprising issues together. In this article, you will learn how blood glucose, penis size, and your hormones can be interconnected, and what impact your pituitary gland has.

Microphallus, or micropenis, is a medical condition that describes a penis that is below a particular size range. Penis sizes can vary from person to person, and a smaller sized penis can signal various imbalances in your body. This is usually diagnosed at birth and can be a result of fetal testosterone deficiency.

The Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) reports that micropenis is a rare condition that affects only around 0.6% of men in the world.

It’s so rare that there really isn’t a clear definition of size requirements. Generally, microphallus may be diagnosed when the penis measures 3.6 inches or less while flaccid, and about 5.2 inches while stretched.

Outside of the physical size of the penis, some symptoms of microphallus can include:

Hormone imbalances are thought to be the main cause of microphallus, specifically:

Hypogonadism is another term that might be used interchangeably to describe conditions involving penis size, but hypogonadism is really a more general term. It describes abnormal hormone secretion or function that affects the testes or the ovaries. It is not a condition that’s necessarily specific to penis size.

The pituitary gland is sometimes referred to as the hormonal “master gland” because it plays a role in the creation or expression of many different kinds of hormones.

Some specific hormones specifically produced or regulated by the pituitary gland include:

These hormones carry information about body functions from cell to cell and help control important body functions like growth and metabolism.

Although penis size has a lot of contributing factors, including genetics and overall body size, hormones are also important to the development and function of the penis and other reproductive organs.

Growth hormone deficiencies have been linked to microphallus. But hyperglycemia is not always a part of this mix.

In fact, some infants with hormone and pituitary gland problems face growth hormone deficiencies that can lead to symptoms that include:

  • reduced energy levels
  • altered body composition, osteoporosis
  • reduced muscle strength
  • increased LDL cholesterol
  • insulin resistance
  • impaired heart function

In particular, low blood sugar is also possible.

Just as the pituitary gland helps regulate growth and reproductive hormones, it also helps control metabolic hormones. The pituitary gland affects your body’s insulin use. Insulin production and sensitivity are key factors in the development of type 2 diabetes, which may be tied to both genetics and lifestyle factors.

That can result in a glucose spike in your bloodstream.

Pituitary dysfunction has less to do with blood glucose imbalances than other medical conditions. However, it’s definitely an area worth investigating if you experience microphallus and other conditions that could be related to hormone levels.

On their own, even without known pituitary problems, diabetes and high blood glucose levels have been linked to issues with male infertility and erectile dysfunction.

There’s some evidence that medications designed to lower blood glucose levels can have a negative effect on sexual health and performance, or contribute to hypogonadism. Examples of medications that might fall under this umbrella include:

Supplemental growth hormones and testosterone have been used in the treatment of micropenis.

However, your healthcare team may want to consider other contributing factors or underlying conditions before prescribing these medications.

If high blood glucose or diabetes is a contributing factor, or if you have other forms of hormonal or pituitary dysfunction, properly treating those issues is also important to your overall health and well-being.

Hormones affect every system in the body. While blood sugar and penis size don’t have a strong direct connection, hormone imbalances — specifically pituitary gland dysfunction — can affect penis size and your overall reproductive health.