Your penis may continue growing until you reach adulthood. But penis size isn’t related to sexual ability or testosterone level.

Most penis growth occurs during puberty, though there may be continued growth into a man’s early 20s. Puberty usually begins between the ages of 9 and 14 and lasts up to five years or so, depending on the age at which it starts. However, by the time you reach 18 or 19 years old, your penis isn’t likely to grow much longer or thicker.

The growth rate during puberty varies from one male to another. A 2010 study found that the average rate of penis growth is less than half an inch per year from ages 11 to 15, after which the growth rate continues, but at a slower rate until the age of 19 or so.

You also start producing semen during puberty. Erections and ejaculation become more common during this time, as well.

Penis size is determined by hormone exposure and varies greatly from one individual to the next. The average length of a flaccid penis is between 3.4 and 3.7 inches, while the average length of an erect penis is between 5.1 and 5.7 inches. The average circumference of an erect penis is between 3.5 and 3.9 inches. Learn more about the average penis size.

There is a lucrative market for pills, lotions, and devices that claim to increase penis size. However, there is no scientific evidence that any of these products do what they claim.

Can you increase size with surgery?

There is a surgical procedure, known as penoplasty, that can add some length to a flaccid penis, but it doesn’t affect the length of an erect penis. It involves cutting a ligament that attaches the penis to the pubic bone. This procedure can cause your erection to not point as high as it did before the procedure.

Can a vacuum pump increase penis size?

Vacuum pumps can help some men with erectile dysfunction achieve erections, but the vacuums don’t increase penis length or thickness.

Do testosterone supplements increase size?

You may wonder if testosterone supplements might help spur penis growth. There are plenty of companies making that claim, but there’s no scientific research to support it.

A 2006 study published in the journal Psychology of Men & Masculinity found that men are much more concerned about their penis size than their partners are. While many men wonder if they’re big enough, 85 percent of women in the study said they were satisfied with their partner’s penis size. Only 14 percent wanted their partner to have a larger penis.

In most cases, penis size doesn’t affect your ability to engage in sexual activities. It’s also not a sign of your masculinity or testosterone levels.

Micropenis is a condition in which a baby boy’s penis is below the normal size range for an infant of the same age. Average length for a newborn boy’s penis is between 1.1 and 1.6 inches, and the average circumference is between 0.35 and 0.5 inches. The measurement is taken by carefully stretching the penis.

Micropenis may be a symptom of hormone disorders that affect development of a boy’s sexual organs. These disorders may also affect the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus. Usually a physical examination is all that’s needed to diagnose micropenis. Hormone therapy may be helpful for some children with this condition.

If you’re concerned about your penis size or you have other questions about your penis, testicles, and sexual health, see a urologist. You may want to start with your primary care physician, but a urologist may be more helpful in:

  • diagnosing problems
  • reassuring you about what’s “normal”
  • giving you treatment options
  • answering other questions

And if you do have questions or concerns, you’re not alone. Research shows that only 55 percent of men are satisfied with their penis size.

If you’re a parent and you suspect your baby has micropenis or any other abnormality regarding his genitalia or development, talk with a pediatrician. You may need to see a urologist who treats children.

Penis size isn’t related to sexual ability, testosterone level, or other masculine features. A man with an average-sized penis can have a more robust sex life than a man with a larger penis.

There’s also much more to your appeal than physical traits, such as:

  • confidence
  • personality
  • sense of humor
  • overall fitness
  • intelligence
  • your relationship with your partner

Sometimes a frank conversation with a urologist can calm some anxiety and let you focus on the characteristics you can control.