The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved hCG injections to treat specific medical conditions. In females assigned at birth (FAABs), they can help treat infertility. In males assigned at birth (MAABs), they can treat a type of hypogonadism.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is sometimes called “the pregnancy hormone” because of its important role in maintaining pregnancy.

Pregnancy tests check hCG levels in the urine or blood to determine if a person is pregnant or not.

Read on to learn how it can be used for MAABs.

There are a variety of reasons why a doctor might prescribe hCG to a man.

To help address hypogonadism

In men, doctors prescribe hCG to help address the symptoms of hypogonadism, such as low testosterone and infertility. hCG can help the body increase its production of testosterone and sperm, which can help reduce infertility.

To improve testosterone deficiency

Injections of hCG are also sometimes used as an alternative to testosterone products in MAABs with testosterone deficiency.

Testosterone deficiency is defined as testosterone blood levels less than 300 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL) along with symptoms of low testosterone. These include:

According to the American Urological Association, hCG is appropriate for those MAABs with testosterone deficiency who also desire to maintain fertility.

Testosterone products boost levels of the hormone in the body but can have the side effects of shrinking the gonads, altering sexual function, and causing infertility.

hCG can help increase:

  • gonad size
  • testosterone levels
  • fertility

Some doctors believe that using testosterone along with hCG may help improve symptoms of testosterone deficiency while preventing some of testosterone’s side effects.

To improve sexual function

hCG may also help improve sexual function in MAABs who don’t experience improvement while on testosterone.

To reverse steroid side effects

Bodybuilders who take anabolic steroids such as testosterone also sometimes use hCG to help prevent or reverse some of the side effects steroids cause, such as gonad shrinkage and infertility.

In men, hCG acts like luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates Leydig cells in the testicles, which results in the production of testosterone.

LH also stimulates production of sperm within structures in the testicles called seminiferous tubules.

As hCG stimulates the testicles to produce testosterone and sperm, the testicles grow in size over time.

Very little clinical research has evaluated hCG in MAABs with low testosterone levels.

In a small 2002 study of older MAABs with partial hypogonadism, hCG increased testosterone levels compared to a placebo control. However, hCG had no effect on sexual function.

In one 2005 study, MAABs taking testosterone along with hCG were able to maintain testosterone production in the testicles.

In a 2013 study, MAABs taking testosterone along with hCG were able to maintain adequate sperm production.

According to a 2018 study, hCG can help MAABs with hypogonadism preserve their fertility, whether it’s used alone or in combination with testosterone. It can help restore sperm production as well.

A small 2019 study concluded that hCG was safe and effective for MAABs who experience the symptoms of hypogonadism but have testosterone levels above 300 ng/dL. Testosterone levels above 300 ng/dL are widely considered normal.

For men, the most common side effects of hCG injections include:

  • gynecomastia, or the growth of male breasts
  • pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site
  • stomach pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting

In rare cases, people taking hCG have developed blood clots. Although also rare, allergic reactions can occur, including mild skin rashes and severe anaphylactic reactions.

hCG is sometimes used for weight loss. Several products are available that are marketed as over-the-counter (OTC) homeopathic hCG products for weight loss.

However, the FDA has warned that it hasn’t approved hCG products for the purpose of weight loss. Any OTC products claiming to contain hCG aren’t legally authorized, either.

The FDA has also advised consumers that there’s no substantial evidence that hCG works for weight loss.

These products are often used as part of an “hCG diet.” This typically involves taking hCG supplements while following a low calorie diet of 500 calories per day.

Although this low calorie diet can help reduce weight, there’s no evidence that using hCG products helps.

Additionally, this extremely low calorie diet can be unsafe for many people. Possible side effects of extremely restrictive diets include:

When used appropriately with the guidance of your doctor, hCG is safe.

It shouldn’t be used by MAABs with prostate cancer, certain brain cancers, or uncontrolled thyroid disease.

Talk with your doctor about other medical conditions you may have before using hCG.

hCG is produced from hamster ovary cells. People with an allergy to hamster protein shouldn’t take hCG.

You should avoid all OTC hCG products, since none of them have been FDA approved. The FDA warns against using these products or following the hCG diet.

hCG is an FDA-approved medication for treating specific conditions in both FAABs and men.

In men, it seems to have an important role as an alternative to testosterone for boosting testosterone levels and maintaining fertility.

Some doctors are prescribing it in conjunction with testosterone products for testosterone deficiency to help maintain fertility and sexual function.

Some people are also using hCG for weight loss, often as a component of the hCG diet. However, there’s no reliable evidence that hCG works for this purpose. Due to concerns about its safety, it should be avoided as a weight loss aid.