Cancers that start anywhere in the body’s lymphatic system are called lymphomas. If they have the ability to spread, they are called malignant.
The lymphatic system runs throughout our bodies and is composed of lymphoid tissue, vessels, and fluid. Lymphoid tissue contains lymph nodes, which are part of the immune system. The immune system's job is to produce blood cells and protect against harm from invading germs.
Cancers that begin in other organs and tissues, and then spread to the lymphatic system are not lymphomas. Lymphoma can, however, spread to other parts of the body.
Symptoms can be mild and easily overlooked. The most obvious and common sign of lymphoma is swollen lymph nodes. These may be found in various parts of the body, including:
- upper chest
- under the arm
Other symptoms may include:
- shortness of breath
- feeling tired
- night sweats
- itchy skin, rash
- weight loss
If you believe you have swollen lymph nodes, make an appointment to see your doctor. Having swollen lymph nodes doesn't necessarily mean you have lymphoma. Lymph node inflammation has many causes.
Anyone can get malignant lymphoma. Doctors can't always be certain what causes someone to get lymphoma. Some factors seem to increase your risk, including:
- The risk may be higher in early or late adulthood.
- The disease occurs at a slightly higher rate in males.
- Your chances of developing NHL may increase as you grow older.
- Other risk factors include:
- exposure to radiation
- previous cancer treatment
- a weakened immune system
Both children and adults can get lymphomas, but NHL is not common in children.
If you have swollen lymph nodes your doctor will want to determine the cause. If no obvious cause can be found upon physical examination, your doctor may order blood tests or other diagnostic testing. A lymph node biopsy may be necessary. This is a procedure in which your doctor removes cells from a lymph node and has them examined under a microscope,
This will determine if the cells are malignant or noncancerous.
A biopsy can also detect the difference between Hodgkin lymphoma and NHL, as well as their various sub-types. Along with imaging and blood tests, the biopsy results will help your doctor determine your course of treatment.
The two main types of malignant lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin disease) and NHL. The two types spread in different ways and respond differently to treatment. When lymphoma is of a slow-growing variety, it is referred to as low-grade. Aggressive, fast-growing types are called high-grade.
A lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin when there is an abnormal cell called Reed-Sternberg present. According to the American Cancer Society, about 95 percent of Hodgkin lymphoma patients are diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin disease makes up the remaining 5 percent.
All other types of lymphomas are classified as NHL. This is due to injury to the DNA of a lymphocyte progenitor and can’t be inherited. The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society reports that about 85 percent of people with NHL lymphoma have a B-cell type.
Another type of NHL, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, also called lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, starts in white blood cells. Your skin also harbors lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. Sometimes, NHL can begin on the skin. This is called lymphoma of the skin, or cutaneous lymphoma. Cancer that began elsewhere and spreads to the skin is not lymphoma of the skin.
There are approximately 60 subtypes of NHL.
Treatment depends on a number of factors, including:
- the type of lymphoma
- its level of aggressiveness
- its stage at diagnosis
- other medical problems that may exist
Among the treatment options are:
- radiation therapy
- stem cell transplant
Therapies may be given individually or in combination.
The sooner you begin treatment, the better your outlook. Your individual prognosis will depend on many factors, such as:
- the type and stage of lymphoma
- which treatments you choose
- how well your body responds
Chemotherapy and radiation treatment can be very successful, although these treatments come with many potential side effects.
Additional considerations for prognosis are:
- other medical conditions
- level of follow-up care
Treatment can result in remission and even cure lymphomas. Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the more curable types of cancer, especially in children and young adults.
Only your doctor can provide insight into your prognosis.