Lower back pain is extremely common, especially in adults between the ages of 30 and 50, according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Discomfort in the lower back can be chronic or ongoing. It can also be a sudden and brief condition known as acute pain.
Causes of lower back pain include:
- muscle pulls and spasms
- nerve irritation
- spinal abnormalities, such as a slipped disc or spinal stenosis
Treatment options for lower back pain range widely according to the cause of the condition. Read on to learn more.
Rest your lower back to counter the pain. Depending on the severity of your symptoms, this may simply mean reducing your level of activity for a couple of days.
Bed rest is no longer recommended for treatment of low back pain except for short periods of time.
Lying on your back with a pillow under your knees helps keep your back in a neutral position.
You might also find some relief by lying on the floor with your knees bent at a 90-degree angle and propped on a chair.
However, don’t rest for too long. Many cases of lower back pain resolve themselves within a couple of days.
Longer periods of inactivity can actually cause your muscles to weaken.
Treat lower back pain with a hot or cold compress. According to the NINDS, evidence suggests that using heat and ice packs can increase your mobility and reduce pain.
Place a bag of ice or frozen vegetables on the tender areas of your lower back to reduce inflammation. Be sure to wrap the ice pack in a towel to protect your skin from frostbite. You can safely use ice several times daily for 20 minutes or so at a time.
Switch to heat after a couple of days of cold treatment in the form of a heating pad or warm bath. The warmth will loosen the tight muscles that are causing your pain.
Turn off the heating pad before falling asleep to reduce the risk of burns.
Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers are a noninvasive treatment option for back pain. Medications such as naproxen, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen are most effective in reducing pain and swelling associated with muscle-related lower back pain.
However, OTC medication is less likely to alleviate symptoms that stem from nerve compression or disc problems. Call your doctor if your back doesn’t feel better after a few days of rest, hot or cold compresses, and OTC analgesics.
Your doctor might prescribe stronger medications to relieve chronic lower back pain that isn’t helped by OTC options.
Antidepressants, narcotics such as codeine, and anticonvulsant drugs may be used to treat lower back pain.
Nerve pain such as sciatica, which results from a bulging disc in the lower back, can be difficult to treat with oral medications. For this type of discomfort, corticosteroids and anesthetic medications may be injected to reduce inflammation.
Corticosteroids may be injected intramuscularly, taken orally, or injected under fluoroscopy (as epidural steroid injection-ESI). Once the swelling of the nerve decreases, you’ll usually find some relief.
Exercise may be the last thing on your mind when your back hurts. However, physical activity is an effective way to recover more quickly from your aches and pains.
Core exercises — such as pelvic tilts and bridges — strengthen the muscles in your abdomen and back that support your spine. The stronger these muscles become, the less likely you are to be affected by lower back pain.
Studies from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) report that people who practiced adapted yoga poses experienced less pain and disability, and it improved their mood after six months.
Swimming and walking are also great ways to keep your back healthy as well as keeping a healthy weight. Excess weight plays a role in lower back pain because it puts more pressure on your joints.
If your back pain doesn’t respond to conventional treatments, you may need to consider alternative options.
Traction uses a system of weights to align your spine and possibly help slipped discs move back into place.
Ultrasound involves massaging the soft tissues around your back injury with sound waves that warm the muscles, causing them to relax and heal more quickly.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is electronic stimulation of the nerves through electrodes placed on your skin.
The electricity blocks pain signals that travel through the nerve paths.
Ask your doctor about these treatment methods.
Alternative medicine for lower back pain includes the use of chiropractic care and acupuncture.
Chiropractic is the practice of manually realigning the spine and other weak or injured areas of the musculoskeletal system.
Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese art of treating illness and injury through the manipulation of pressure points.
Fine needles are sterilized and inserted into your skin at specific points across the body to reduce pain and in an effort to realign your life’s spirit, referred to in acupuncture as “qi.”
Relatively few people require surgery for chronic, severe back pain. However, it remains an option if other treatments don’t provide relief.
Small disc fragments that have broken off or disintegrated can be surgically removed to take pressure off nerve paths.
Injured or abnormal vertebrae that cause lower back pain may be fused together to straighten your back and help you regain mobility.
Back surgery, as with any other surgical procedure, carries risks. It’s used only as a last resort, unless there’s been loss of bowel or bladder control or there’s any neurological loss.