Leukemia refers to a group of blood cancers that affect your bone marrow, as well as your red and white blood cells. It’s considered the most common childhood cancer. In fact, the American Cancer Society (ACS) says that about
However, chronic forms of leukemia in children are considered rare.
Acute lymphoblastic/lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the
What’s the difference between acute and chronic leukemia?
Chronic leukemia develops slowly, and the symptoms may be mild at first. Acute leukemia develops quickly, and the symptoms are more noticeable. Read this article for more information about the differences between the two.
As with any cancer, an early diagnosis and prompt treatment for childhood leukemia is crucial to preventing its spread. Learn more about the survival rates for this type of cancer, as well as risk factors to consider.
|Childhood leukemia||With ALL||With AML|
|5-year survival rates||90%||65–70%|
While leukemia remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in children, treatment advances have increased the overall survival rates.
In fact, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), overall childhood cancer mortality rates have decreased by
When considering outlook, researchers refer to what’s known as a 5-year survival rate. This refers to an average percentage of people who are still alive 5 years after they’re first diagnosed.
Keep in mind that a 5-year survival rate is not an exact predictor of any child’s cancer journey.
Infants and toddlers
Leukemia is considered rare in infants; one clinical review estimated an incidence of about
However, despite its rarity, infant leukemia tends to be more aggressive, and requires intense treatment. Infants may enter remission, but cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, may lead to
According to the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS), the average 5-year survival rate for ALL, the most common type of leukemia in children, is 94.4 percent for those under age 5. There’s a slight drop to 92.5 percent for older children under age 15.
AML is a less common leukemia in children. It also has a lower 5-year survival rate of 70.6 percent for all children under age 15.
The survival rate for ALL in older children has also improved over the last several decades. According to the NCI, adolescents 15 to 19 years old have an average 5-year survival rate of at least
While childhood leukemia isn’t necessarily preventable, there are a few known risk factors you may wish to discuss with your doctor. Consider the following:
There’s a peak in childhood ALL cases in ages 2 to 3 years. The NCI reports an incidence of at least
Prenatal exposure to X-rays
One reason why ultrasounds are used instead of X-rays during pregnancy is to reduce an unborn baby’s exposure to radiation. Prenatal exposure to X-rays is another possible risk factor for childhood ALL — especially during the
In some cases, an X-ray may be medically necessary. Talk with your doctor about all your imaging options, especially if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
Exposure to high doses of radiation
Postnatal exposure to radiation may also increase your child’s risk for
- ataxia telangiectasia (A-T)
- Bloom syndrome
- constitutional mismatch repair deficiency
- Down syndrome
- Fanconi anemia
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome
While there appears to be no correlation between both parents and children having ALL, having a sibling with this cancer could increase your risk.
With AML, there appears to be a higher risk in children who have either a sibling or a parent with a history of this type of leukemia.
Certain blood disorders
According to the
- essential thrombocythemia
- idiopathic myelofibrosis
- myelodysplastic syndrome
- polycythemia vera
Factors that may affect childhood leukemia survival rates include:
- subtype, with ALL having a better prognosis than AML
- initial white blood cell reports — counts that exceed
50,000are signs of a higher risk case
- age at the time of diagnosis, with those ages
1 to 9having higher cure rates
- treatment response
- changes to chromosomes, which are genetic structures made of DNA and proteins
The 5-year survival rates estimated for different age groups doesn’t take the possibility for relapse into account. However, the NCI estimates that
Additionally, the ACS reports that children who enter remission after
According to the NCI, between
It’s important to discuss your child’s individual case with their cancer specialist (also known as an oncologist), including the possible risks of treatment toxicity.
What’s the difference between relapse and remission?
While the outlook for childhood leukemia is much more promising than in years past, it’s important to find support as a caregiver to help you navigate the process. This may come in the form of:
Overall, the survival rate for childhood leukemia has significantly increased in recent decades. This is attributed to both early detection and advanced treatments that aim to reduce long-term toxicity.
It’s important to talk with your child’s oncologist about their individual situation. You may also wish to discuss prognostic risk factors, such as age and genetic conditions, as well as the chances of remission and relapse.